BACKGROUND: Being awake during anaesthesia is a serious complication. An anaesthetic depth monitor must discriminate in real time between wakefulness and unconsciousness. The present study created a period of wakefulness during propofol-induced hypnosis. Bispectral index (BIS), explicit and implicit memories of the awake period were investigated. METHODS: Ten volunteers were studied. The calculated brain concentration of a target controlled infusion of propofol was increased until loss of response (LOR) to verbal command and then propofol was stopped.
BACKGROUND: Flumazenil is a specific benzodiazepine agonist, which is reported to have a partial benzodiazepine agonist-like effect at a high dose. This study investigated the effects of flumazenil and midazolam on the hypnotic dose of propofol and thiopental in ddY mice, using a behavioral model. METHODS: Mice were given either propofol or thiopental intravenously to induce hypnosis, which was defined as a loss of the righting reflex.
The bispectral index (BIS) and the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index as calculated by the new A-line monitor were measured during hypnosis with propofol, which included an episode of wakefulness. Both indices followed a similar pattern during sedation, with values decreasing with sedation and increasing when awake. Baseline AEP values varied between 60 and 98, and BIS values were between 96 and 98. The AEP-index value was at all times 10-20 points lower than the BIS-index. The transition to loss of response occurred at a mean AEP value of 46 and BIS value of 58.
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling can be used to characterize the concentration-effect relation of drugs. If the concentration-effect relation of a hypnotic drug is stable over time, an effect parameter derived from the processed electroencephalographic signal may be used to control the infusion for hypnosis. Therefore, the stability of the propofol concentration-electroencephalographic effect relation over time was investigated under non-steady state conditions.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence that bispectral index (BIS) monitoring of hypnosis might have on need for analgesia during surgery under total intravenous anesthesia provided by bolus administration of fentanyl. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Prospective, randomized and partially double-blind study of 40 patients undergoing major gynecological surgery under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl. In the BIS group (n = 20) propofol administration was adjusted to maintain BIS between 40 and 60.
INTRODUCTION: The Narcotrend is a new EEG monitor designed to measure the depth of anaesthesia based on a 6-letter classification from A (awake) to F (general anaesthesia with increasing burst suppression) and divided into 14 substages (A, B0-2, C0-2, D0-2, E0,1, F0,1). This study was designed to investigate the assessment of the depth of anaesthesia as measured by the Narcotrend in comparison with bispectral index monitoring (BIS). METHODS: Both BIS and Narcotrend EEG electrodes were positioned on the patient's forehead as recommended by the manufacturers.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
We studied the interactions between a local anesthetic agent, lidocaine, and two general anesthetic drugs, propofol and ketamine, in mice. We used two end points: hypnosis, reflected by loss of the righting reflex, and death. The ED50 for hypnosis and the LD50 were determined for each drug separately, and a dose-response curve was prepared for each drug, using combinations of propofol-lidocane and ketamine-lidocaine at three different dose ratios.
BACKGROUND: Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to perform during the anesthesia procedure. This problem was addressed by defining an index which reflected the peak amplitudes and latencies of the AEP, developed to improve the clinical interpretation of the AEP.
The effect of the additional administration of midazolam or flumazenil on bispectral index (BIS) during propofol anesthesia was investigated in 22 scheduled surgical patients. Midazolam 10 or 30 micrograms.kg-1, or flumazenil 6 or 12 micrograms.kg-1 was injected to the patients to evaluate their effect on BIS after achieving steady state of hypnosis more than 1 hr of propofol anesthesia with 5 mg.kg-1.hr-1. The only midazolam 30 micrograms.kg-1 significantly reduced BIS value from 47.8 +/- 8.6 to 36.8 +/- 6.5.
We used two mouse lines with glycine receptor mutations to determine whether glycine receptors might play an important role in anesthetic responses in vivo. Spastic (spA) mutants were slightly more sensitive (P = 0.02) to enflurane in the loss-of-righting reflex assay (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 1.17 +/- 0.06 atm for controls versus 0.97 +/- 0.06 atm for spA) but were also substantially more resistant (P = 0.01) to enflurane in the tail clamp assay (EC(50) = 1.96 +/- 0.10 atm for controls versus 2.58 +/- 0.25 atm for spA).