Hypnotics and opioids interact synergistically to block responses to surgery and different dose combinations may be used to provide adequate anesthesia. In this study, we sought to determine the optimal concentrations of propofol and sufentanil, given by target-controlled infusions, to ensure hemodynamic stability, adequate hypnosis (assessed by electroencephalogram bispectral index), and fast recovery for a moderately painful operation.
OBJECTIVE: [corrected] As indicated by the manufacturer the EEG monitor Narcotrend trade mark (MonitorTechnik, Bad Bramstedt) can be used to analyse EEG effects of volatile anaesthetics, however, published data are missing. This study evaluated the emergence from a desflurane/remifentanil anaesthetic and was designed to investigate the relationship between Narcotrend stages (version 2.0 AF) and end-tidal desflurane concentrations and to identify the pattern of changes of the Narcotrend stages during recovery.
Anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and acidic pH in renal failure patients can alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anaesthetic agents, resulting in altered dose requirements. We evaluated the induction dose of propofol in adult patients with end-stage renal disease by titrating the hypnotic effect by means of a clinical parameter as well as using a more objective assessment of hypnosis, the Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor. The dose was compared with that for patients with normal renal function.
BACKGROUND: We report the evaluation of six sedative-hypnotic and analgesic combinations administered to children undergoing brief periods of unconscious (or deep) sedation for painful procedures. METHODS: In a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled study of six groups of 27-30 children each, patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol or methohexital for sedation-hypnosis, and one of three incremental doses of fentanyl or remifentanil, respectively.
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
General anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice. On the molecular level, these compounds have been shown to modulate the activity of various neuronal ion channels. However, the functional relevance of identified sites in mediating essential components of the general anesthetic state, such as immobility and hypnosis, is still unknown. Using gene-targeting technology, we generated mice harboring a subtle point mutation (N265M) in the second transmembrane region of the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor.
INTRODUCTION: The Narcotrend is a new EEG monitor designed to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia; however, a major clinical evaluation is still missing. This prospective multicentre study was designed to investigate the feasibility of Narcotrend monitoring in a large number of patients under different clinical conditions and to define its impact on recovery times after propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia.
BACKGROUND: Propofol is reported to reduce both sympathetic and parasympathetic tone; however, it is not clear whether the changes in heart rate variability are associated with depth of anesthesia. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis and (2) to compare the effects of propofol on heart rate variability with that of sevoflurane. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly allocated into the propofol or sevoflurane for induction of anesthesia. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the Bispectral Index (BIS).
BACKGROUND: Bispectal index (BIS) monitoring may reduce drug usage and hasten recovery in propofol and inhalation anesthesia. The faster emergence profile of desflurane may reduce the effect of BIS monitoring on recovery from desflurane compared with propofol. This study compared hypnotic drug usage, recovery, patient satisfaction and incidence of inadequate sedation in BIS monitored and nonmonitored women anesthetized with desflurane or propofol.
During induction of anaesthesia with etomidate, myoclonic muscle movements are frequent. In this study, pretreatment with a small dosage of etomidate or midazolam was compared with placebo for the prevention of myoclonic muscle movements. Sixty patients, premedicated with oral midazolam, were pretreated in a randomized double-blinded fashion with etomidate 0.05 mg/kg i.v., midazolam 0.015 mg/kg i.v. or normal saline i.v. (placebo) in three groups of 20 patients each. The pretreatment was followed after 90 seconds by etomidate 0.3 mg/kg i.v.