Angiotensin II

Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

The present study evaluated the antihypertrophic potential of the ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a well-known edible cardiotonic plant reported in Ayurveda against angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac myoblast cells. Markers of hypertrophy such as cell size, protein content and the concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were analysed for the confirmation of hypertrophy induction.

Author(s): 
Prathapan, A.
Vineetha, V. P.
Abhilash, P. A.
Raghu, K. G.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Pathology

In diabetes and hypertension, the induction of increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activity due to glucose and angiotensin II is a significant factor in the development of fibrosis and organ failure. We showed previously that glucose and angiotensin II induce the latent TGF-beta activator thrombospondin-1 (TSP1).

Author(s): 
Belmadani, Souad
Bernal, Juan
Wei, Chih-Chang
Pallero, Manuel A.
Dell'italia, Louis
Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.
Berecek, Kathleen H.
Publication Title: 
Current Hypertension Reports

To regulate blood pressure, the brain controls circulating hormones, which influence the brain by binding to brain neurons that lie outside the blood-brain barrier. Recent work has demonstrated that "cardiovascular" hormones are synthesized and released in the brain as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and can, in some cases, signal through the blood-brain barrier. The renin-angiotensin system is a prototype for these newly appreciated mechanisms. The brain's intrinsic renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in blood pressure control.

Author(s): 
Carlson, Scott H.
Wyss, J. Michael
Publication Title: 
Cardiovascular Research

AIMS: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a critical role in cell growth and inflammation during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Several members of nuclear receptor superfamily, including liver X receptors (LXRalpha and LXRbeta), have been shown to suppress inflammatory responses, but little is known about their effects in cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated LXR expression patterns in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and the hypertrophic growth of the LXRalpha-deficient hearts from mice (C57/B6) in response to pressure overload.

Author(s): 
Wu, Sijie
Yin, Ran
Ernest, Rick
Li, Yuquan
Zhelyabovska, Olga
Luo, Jinwen
Yang, Yifeng
Yang, Qinglin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

Author(s): 
Li, Jinqing
Ichikawa, Tomonaga
Jin, Yu
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Windust, Anthony
Cui, Taixing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Hypertension in the elderly substantially contributes to cerebromicrovascular damage and promotes the development of vascular cognitive impairment. Despite the importance of the myogenic mechanism in cerebromicrovascular protection, it is not well understood how aging affects the functional adaptation of cerebral arteries to high blood pressure. Hypertension was induced in young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57/BL6 mice by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII).

Author(s): 
Toth, Peter
Tucsek, Zsuzsanna
Sosnowska, Danuta
Gautam, Tripti
Mitschelen, Matthew
Tarantini, Stefano
Deak, Ferenc
Koller, Akos
Sonntag, William E.
Csiszar, Anna
Ungvari, Zoltan
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Based on mosaic theory, hypertension is a multifactorial disorder that develops because of genetic, environmental, anatomical, adaptive neural, endocrine, humoral, and hemodynamic factors. It has been recently proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to all of these factors and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of hypertension. Previous studies focusing on the role of vascular NADPH oxidases provided strong support of this concept.

Author(s): 
Dikalov, Sergey I.
Ungvari, Zoltan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

Author(s): 
Li, Jinqing
Ichikawa, Tomonaga
Jin, Yu
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Windust, Anthony
Cui, Taixing
Publication Title: 
Hypertension

Angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage is associated with oxidative stress-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction. Caloric restriction (CR), a dietary regimen that increases mitochondrial activity and cellular stress resistance, could provide protection. We tested that hypothesis in double transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGRs). CR (60% of energy intake for 4 weeks) decreased mortality in dTGRs.

Author(s): 
Finckenberg, Piet
Eriksson, Ove
Baumann, Marc
Merasto, Saara
Lalowski, Maciej M.
Levijoki, Jouko
Haasio, Kristiina
Kytö, Ville
Muller, Dominik N.
Luft, Friedrich C.
Oresic, Matej
Mervaala, Eero
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of Huoxue Qianyang Granule (HXQYG), a traditional Chinese compound medicine, in revising the left ventricular hypertrophy of hypertension. METHODS: Spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were randomly divided into seven groups: untreated group, Songling Xuemaikang (SLXMK)-treated group, captopril-treated group, high-, medium- and low-dose HXQYG-treated groups, and normal control group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Duan
Xiao, Mei-Fang
Hu, Rong

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