Spinal microglia play a key role for creating exaggerated pain following tissues inflammation or injury. Electroacupuncture (EA) can effectively control the exaggerated pain both in humans with inflammatory disease and animals with experimental inflammatory pain. However, little is known about the relationship between spinal glial activation and EA analgesia.
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is one of the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal injuries; however, the efficacy of acupuncture in treating ankle sprains remains uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence regarding acupuncture for ankle sprains. METHODS: We searched 15 data sources and two trial registries up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture were included if they involved patients with ankle sprains and reported outcomes of symptom improvement, including pain. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used.