Anopheles

Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Entomology

The influence of indoor microclimate on survival of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes fed on different nutrition sources was evaluated in a semifield experimental hut exposed to ambient climate in western Kenya. Cages of mosquitoes (n approximately 50 per cage) were placed in nine positions within the hut combining three different sides and three different heights.

Author(s): 
Okech, Bernard A.
Gouagna, Louis C.
Killeen, Gerard F.
Knols, Bart G. J.
Kabiru, Ephantus W.
Beier, John C.
Yan, Guiyan
Githure, John I.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology.

Author(s): 
Ara˙jo, Maisa da-Silva
Gil, Luiz Herman S.
e-Silva, Alexandre de-Almeida
Publication Title: 
Le Infezioni in Medicina: Rivista Periodica Di Eziologia, Epidemiologia, Diagnostica, Clinica E Terapia Delle Patologie Infettive

The loss of low-lying farm-land to marshes and swamps was a striking phenomenon in Italy and other regions of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Throughout the Middle Ages extensive fertile agricultural lands were abandoned due to increased marshiness and the risk of the spread of malaria diffusion. In economic and social terms, this was a further source of decline.

Author(s): 
Sabbatani, S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Combination therapy that includes artemisinin derivatives cures most falciparum malaria infections. Lowering transmission by reducing gametocyte infectivity would be an additional benefit. To examine the effect of such therapy on transmission, Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with standard regimens of chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine alone or in combination with 1 or 3 doses of artesunate. The infectivity to mosquitoes of gametocytes in peripheral blood was determined 4 or 7 days after treatment.

Author(s): 
Targett, G.
Drakeley, C.
Jawara, M.
von Seidlein, L.
Coleman, R.
Deen, J.
Pinder, M.
Doherty, T.
Sutherland, C.
Walraven, G.
Milligan, P.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand.

Author(s): 
Ponsa, Narong
Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
Eikarat, Nantana
Coleman, Russell E.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Malaria parasites carrying genes conferring resistance to antimalarials are thought to have a selective advantage which leads to higher rates of transmissibility from the drug-treated host. This is a likely mechanism for the increasing prevalence of parasites with resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in sub-Saharan Africa. Combination therapy is the key strategy being implemented to reduce the impact of resistance, but its effect on the transmission of genetically resistant parasites from treated patients to mosquito vectors has not been measured directly.

Author(s): 
Hallett, Rachel L.
Sutherland, Colin J.
Alexander, Neal
Ord, Rosalynn
Jawara, Musa
Drakeley, Chris J.
Pinder, Margaret
Walraven, Gijs
Targett, Geoffrey A. T.
Alloueche, Ali
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission.

Author(s): 
Barnes, Karen I.
Dürrheim, David N.
Little, Francesca
Jackson, Amanda
Mehta, Ushma
Allen, Elizabeth
Dlamini, Sicelo S.
Tsoka, Joyce
Bredenkamp, Barry
Mthembu, D. Jotham
White, Nicholas J.
Sharp, Brian L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) reduces microscopically confirmed gametocytemia and mosquito infection. However, molecular techniques have recently revealed high prevalences of submicroscopic gametocytemia. Our objective here was to determine the effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapy and treatment with SP plus amodiaquine (AQ), SP plus artesunate (AS), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL; Coartem) on submicroscopic gametocytemia and infectiousness.Methods. Kenyan children (n=528) 6 months-10 years of age were randomized to 4 treatment arms.

Author(s): 
Bousema, J. Teun
Schneider, Petra
Gouagna, Louis C.
Drakeley, Chris J.
Tostmann, Alma
Houben, Rein
Githure, John I.
Ord, Rosalynn
Sutherland, Colin J.
Omar, Sabah A.
Sauerwein, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes after exposure in vitro to quinine, artesunate, and primaquine was assessed in Anopheles dirus, a major vector of malaria in Southeast Asia. Mature gametocytes (stage 5) of a Thai isolate of P. falciparum were exposed to the drugs for 24 h in vitro before membrane feeding to A. dirus. After 10 days, the mosquito midguts were dissected and the oocysts were counted.

Author(s): 
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Udomsangpetch, Rachanee
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Coleman, Russell E.
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Parasitology

While seeking strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in vertebrate/invertebrate hosts, we tested the activity of gomesin, an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. Gomesin was tested against asexual, sexual and pre-sporogonic forms of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites. The peptide inhibited the in vitro growth of intraerythrocytic forms of P. falciparum. When gomesin was added to in vitro culture of P.

Author(s): 
Moreira, Cristina K.
Rodrigues, Flávia G.
Ghosh, Anil
Varotti, Fernando de P.
Miranda, Antonio
Daffre, Sirlei
Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo
Moreira, Luciano A.

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