Anti-Bacterial Agents

Publication Title: 
Journal of Critical Care

PURPOSE: Sepsis and severe sepsis are the most common cause of death among critically ill patients admitted in medical intensive care units. As more than one-third of the adult population of the United States is obese; we undertook a systematic review of the association between obesity and mortality among patients admitted with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify pertinent studies using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies reporting mortality in obese patients admitted with sepsis were identified.

Author(s): 
Trivedi, Vrinda
Bavishi, Chirag
Jean, Raymonde
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: There has been renewal of interest in the use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not regular treatment of COPD patients with prophylactic antibiotics reduces exacerbations or affects quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was August 2013.

Author(s): 
Herath, Samantha C.
Poole, Phillippa
Publication Title: 
The Veterinary Record

Eighteen Norwegian dairy farmers were interviewed to examine their reasons for using homoeopathic treatments in managing their herds' health. Overall, they chose the treatments on the basis of factors related to their personal experience, considerations of individual animals and the framework for dairy production. For individual animals homoeopathy was used as an alternative to conventional veterinary treatment, but at the herd level it was used to complement it.

Author(s): 
Hektoen, L.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacotherapy

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are a common cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. Persons may have asymptomatic colonization with MRSA in the nares, axillae, perineum, or groin. Since MRSA colonization often precedes infection, and infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there is great interest in preventing the transmission of MRSA and decolonizing persons who harbor these bacteria. We provide an evidence-based review of MRSA decolonization agents.

Author(s): 
McConeghy, Kevin W.
Mikolich, Dennis J.
LaPlante, Kerry L.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) or 'glue ear' is the most common cause of pediatric hearing loss, and a drain on global healthcare resources. It is associated with frequent episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and linked with environmental and social factors, including diet, smoking households, overcrowding and day care use. Current conventional treatment for OME is unsatisfactory, the area constitutes an 'effectiveness gap'.

Author(s): 
Fixsen, Alison
Publication Title: 
The Veterinary Record

This review assesses the evidence for the efficacy of therapies used in the management of osteoarthritis in dogs on the basis of papers published in peer-reviewed journals in English between 1985 and July 2007. Sixty-eight papers were identified and evaluated. They considered four alternative therapies, one use of functional food, two intra-articular agents, six nutraceutical agents, 21 pharmacological agents, two physical therapies, three surgical techniques and two combinations of weight control.

Author(s): 
Sanderson, R. O.
Beata, C.
Flipo, R.-M.
Genevois, J.-P.
Macias, C.
Tacke, S.
Vezzoni, A.
Innes, J. F.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases established the Sore Throat Guideline Group to write an updated guideline to diagnose and treat patients with acute sore throat. In diagnosis, Centor clinical scoring system or rapid antigen test can be helpful in targeting antibiotic use. The Centor scoring system can help to identify those patients who have higher likelihood of group A streptococcal infection. In patients with high likelihood of streptococcal infections (e.g. 3-4 Centor criteria) physicians can consider the use of rapid antigen test (RAT).

Author(s): 
ESCMID Sore Throat Guideline Group
Pelucchi, C.
Grigoryan, L.
Galeone, C.
Esposito, S.
Huovinen, P.
Little, P.
Verheij, T.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ?3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ?2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year.

Author(s): 
Eells, Samantha J.
Bharadwa, Kiran
McKinnell, James A.
Miller, Loren G.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hordeolum is an acute, purulent inflammation of the eyelid margin usually caused by obstructed orifices of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid. The condition, which affects sebaceous glands internally or externally, is common. When the meibomian gland in the tarsal plate is affected, internal hordeolum occurs, while when the glands of Zeis or Moll associated with eyelash follicles are affected, external hordeolum, or stye occurs. The onset of hordeolum is usually self limited, and may resolve in about a week with spontaneous drainage of the abscess.

Author(s): 
Cheng, Ke
Law, Andrew
Guo, Menghu
Wieland, L. Susan
Shen, Xueyong
Lao, Lixing
Publication Title: 
Cancer Nursing

BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an established treatment in managing liver primary neoplasms or liver metastases. Postembolization syndrome (PES) is a common adverse event defined as fever without associated sepsis, pain in the right upper quadrant, and nausea and/or vomiting. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review aims to identify effective management strategies for PES or one of its characterizing symptoms (fever, pain, and nausea and/or vomiting). METHODS: Searches of electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were conducted.

Author(s): 
Blackburn, Helen
West, Sandra

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