HIV-infected patients have a greater prevalence of dyslipidemia, earlier incidence and progression of atherosclerosis, and a nearly twofold increased risk for myocardial infarction compared with those not infected with HIV. Pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors, viral replication, and antiviral treatments all contribute to this accelerated and increased risk for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected subjects.
The increased longevity afforded by combination antiretroviral therapy in developed countries has led to an increased concern regarding senescence-related diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Previous epidemiologic analyses have demonstrated an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as a significant burden of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected patients. We performed the St.
Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids.
Interest in medication-taking as a social behaviour is growing. Drawing on qualitative data, this study interrogates beliefs and practices related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) use among urban poor Kenyan people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Responding PLWHA relied on a range of ingenious strategies to remember to take their medications but did not necessarily perceive compliance with medical instructions as key to treatment efficacy. They also believed that compliance can even hurt some patients.
BACKGROUND: Using two-way mobile phone text messages to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication enhances communication between patients and health workers. We describe the implications of participants' responses to text messages in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS) trial. FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the intervention arm of the CAMPS trial.
BACKGROUND: While patient-provider interactions are commonly understood as mutually constructed relationships, the role of patient behaviour, participation in interactions, and characteristics, particularly ideals surrounding notions of 'good' and 'bad' patients, are under-examined. This article examines social representations of 'a good patient' and how these representations affect patient-healthcare provider relationships and antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV.
There is substantial variation in the generosity of public assistance programs that affect HIV+ patients, and these differences should affect the economic outcomes associated with HIV infection. This article uses data from a nationally representative sample of HIV+ patients to assess how differences across states in Medicaid and AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) affect costs and labor market outcomes for HIV+ patients in care in that state.
In 2010, the iPrEx study demonstrated efficacy of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men. Adherence to study product was critical for PrEP efficacy, and varied considerably, with FTC/TDF detection rates highest in the United States.
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies are rapidly being adopted for the treatment of malaria in Africa; however, there are limited data on their safety and efficacy among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations. METHODS: We compared malaria treatment outcomes between cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Uganda who were observed for 18 and 29 months, respectively. Malaria was treated with artesunate plus amodiaquine, and outcomes were assessed using standardized guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Presumptive treatment of malaria is common practice in malaria endemic resource-limited settings. With the changing epidemiology of malaria and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), there is increasing need for parasite-based malaria case management to prevent unnecessary use of anti-malarial medicines, improve patient care in parasite-positive patients and identify parasite-negative patients in whom another diagnosis must be sought.