Anti-Infective Agents

Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is the commonest inflammatory skin disease of childhood, affecting 15-20% of children in the UK at any one time. Adults make up about one-third of all community cases. Moderate-to-severe atopic eczema can have a profound effect on the quality of life for both sufferers and their families.

Author(s): 
Hoare, C.
Li Wan Po, A.
Williams, H.
Publication Title: 
Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association

BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers in diabetes are associated with increased mortality, illness and reduced quality of life. Ulcer infection impairs healing and antimicrobial interventions may cure infection, aid healing and reduce amputation rates. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence for antimicrobial interventions for foot ulcers in diabetes. METHODS: We searched 16 databases, 11 Internet sites, three books, conference proceedings, a journal and bibliographies in November 2002. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs).

Author(s): 
Nelson, E. A.
O'Meara, S.
Golder, S.
Dalton, J.
Craig, D.
Iglesias, C.
DASIDU Steering Group
Publication Title: 
Fitoterapia

Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus.

Author(s): 
Bonjar, G. H. Shahidi
Publication Title: 
Planta Medica

Phytochemical investigations of Terminalia arjuna bark and Terminalia chebula fruits resulted in the isolation of twelve triterpenoids including two new oleanane type triterpene glucosyl esters, ajunglucosides IV (1) and V (2), from the N-BuOH layer of the MeOH extract of T. arjuna bark as well as nine oleanane-type triterpenoids from the MeOH extract of the fruits of T. chebula.

Author(s): 
Wang, Wei
Ali, Zulfiqar
Li, Xing-Cong
Shen, Yunheng
Khan, Ikhlas A.
Publication Title: 
Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions.

Author(s): 
Shanbhag, Vagish K. L.
Publication Title: 
Health & Social Work

This article presents data from an AIDS clinical trial that evaluated 238 (60 percent nonwhite) patients infected with HIV and their clinician's perceptions of medication adherence and visit attendance in relationship to lifestyle, psychosocial, and health belief model (HBM) variables. Twelve sites collected data via a prospective, multisite observational study design involving a companion study to a larger randomized clinical trial.

Author(s): 
Cox, Lisa E.
Publication Title: 
JAMA pediatrics

IMPORTANCE: A child's health, positive perceptions of the research team and consent process, and altruistic motives play significant roles in the decision-making process for parents who consent for their child to enroll in clinical research. This study identified that nonconsenting parents were better educated, had private insurance, showed lower levels of altruism, and less understanding of study design. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with parental consent for their child's participation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Author(s): 
Hoberman, Alejandro
Shaikh, Nader
Bhatnagar, Sonika
Haralam, Mary Ann
Kearney, Diana H.
Colborn, D. Kathleen
Kienholz, Michelle L.
Wang, Li
Bunker, Clareann H.
Keren, Ron
Carpenter, Myra A.
Greenfield, Saul P.
Pohl, Hans G.
Mathews, Ranjiv
Moxey-Mims, Marva
Chesney, Russell W.
Publication Title: 
The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics

General pharmacological effects of T-3761, a new oral quinolone antibacterial agent, on the central nervous system were investigated in laboratory animals. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. T-3761 exerted no significant effects on spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, electroshock-, pentetrazole- or strychnine-induced convulsion, acetic acid-induced writhing responses, reserpine-induced hypothermia and ptosis in mice at oral doses of 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg.

Author(s): 
Furuhata, K.
Hiraiwa, T.
Ono, S.
Tanaka, K.
Shimotori, T.
Makino, S.
Kitamura, K.
Aikawa, Y.
Izumi, Y.
Kimura, T.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Petroleum ether (PE), benzene (BE), chloroform (CE), acetone (AE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts (50-200 or 200 mg/kg, i.p. or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of dried Abies pindrow leaves, given 30-45 min before showed significant anti-inflammatory (both against acute and sub-acute models), analgesic, barbiturate hypnosis potentiation and anti-ulcerogenic acitivities in rats. All the extracts except EE decreased swim stress immobility in mice indicating some degree of anti-depressant activity. Only PE exhibited hypotension in dogs blocked by atropine.

Author(s): 
Singh, R. K.
Nath, G.
Goel, R. K.
Bhattacharya, S. K.
Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is the commonest inflammatory skin disease of childhood, affecting 15-20% of children in the UK at any one time. Adults make up about one-third of all community cases. Moderate-to-severe atopic eczema can have a profound effect on the quality of life for both sufferers and their families.

Author(s): 
Hoare, C.
Li Wan Po, A.
Williams, H.

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