Anti-Retroviral Agents

Publication Title: 
AIDS and behavior

To explore the role of informal caregivers in adherence, we compared adherence reports by caregivers to those of care recipients. We identified individual-level and relationship factors associated with agreement between caregivers' reports of recipients' adherence and assessed viral suppression. Participants were care recipients, who were on ART and had ever injected drugs, and their caregivers (N†=†258 dyads). Nearly three-fourths of caregivers' reports of recipients' ART adherence agreed with recipients' viral suppression status.

Author(s): 
Knowlton, Amy R.
Mitchell, Mary M.
Robinson, Allysha C.
Nguyen, Trang Q.
Isenberg, Sarina
Denison, Julie
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1-infected individuals prevents sexual transmission if viral load is suppressed. METHODS: Participants were HIV-1-infected partners randomized to early ART (CD4 350-550) in HPTN052 (n = 886, median follow-up = 2.1 years), a clinical trial of early ART to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples at 13 sites in 9 countries. Adherence was assessed through pill count (dichotomized at <95%) and through self-report items.

Author(s): 
Safren, Steven A.
Mayer, Kenneth H.
Ou, San-San
McCauley, Marybeth
Grinsztejn, Beatriz
Hosseinipour, Mina C.
Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran
Gamble, Theresa
Hoffman, Irving
Celentano, David
Chen, Ying Qing
Cohen, Myron S.
HPTN 052 Study Team
Publication Title: 
The New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors show activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. We hypothesized that the incidence of malaria in HIV-infected children would be lower among children receiving lopinavir-ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) than among those receiving nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART.

Author(s): 
Achan, Jane
Kakuru, Abel
Ikilezi, Gloria
Ruel, Theodore
Clark, Tamara D.
Nsanzabana, Christian
Charlebois, Edwin
Aweeka, Francesca
Dorsey, Grant
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Havlir, Diane
Kamya, Moses R.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risks of acquiring malaria. The majority of antiretroviral (ART) and anti-malarial drugs are metabolized by the CYP450 system, creating a chance of drug-drug interaction upon co-administration. Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL) when co-administered with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

Author(s): 
Maganda, Betty A.
Minzi, Omary M. S.
Kamuhabwa, Appolinary A. R.
Ngasala, Billy
Sasi, Philip G.
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and pharmacy workers are often neither well trained nor aware of the intricacies of HIV treatment.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Amita
Sane, Suvarna S.
Gurbani, Ajay
Bollinger, Robert C.
Mehendale, Sanjay M.
Godbole, Sheela V.
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and pharmacy workers are often neither well trained nor aware of the intricacies of HIV treatment.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Amita
Sane, Suvarna S.
Gurbani, Ajay
Bollinger, Robert C.
Mehendale, Sanjay M.
Godbole, Sheela V.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Stem Cells

The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS.

Author(s): 
Bhargav, Hemant
Huilgol, Vidya
Metri, Kashinath
Sundell, I. Birgitta
Tripathi, Satyam
Ramagouda, Nagaratna
Jadhav, Mahesh
Raghuram, Nagarathna
Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra
Koka, Prasad S.
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: The role of religious beliefs in the prevention of HIV and attitudes towards the infected has received considerable attention. However, little research has been conducted on Faith Leaders' (FLs) perceptions of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the developing world. This study investigated FLs' attitudes towards different HIV treatment options (traditional, medical and spiritual) available in a rural Tanzanian ward. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 FLs purposively selected to account for all the denominations present in the area.

Author(s): 
Roura, Maria
Nsigaye, Ray
Nhandi, Benjamin
Wamoyi, Joyce
Busza, Joanna
Urassa, Mark
Todd, Jim
Zaba, Basia
Publication Title: 
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines

The aim of this prospective study (20 months) was to assess HIV patients' use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and its effect on ARV adherence at three public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seven hundred and thirty-five (29.8% male and 70.2% female) patients who consecutively attended three HIV clinics completed assessments prior to ARV initiation, 519 after 6 months, 557 after 12 and 499 after 20 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Author(s): 
Peltzer, Karl
Preez, Natalie Friend-du
Ramlagan, Shandir
Fomundam, Henry
Anderson, Jane
Chanetsa, Lucia
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Concurrent use of natural health products (NHPs) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. This article reviews the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between NHPs and ARVs. Many NHPs are complex mixtures and are likely to contain organic compounds that may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Although the weight of evidence for the effects of certain NHPs varies and many studies of these products lack scientific rigor, it has been observed that St.

Author(s): 
Lee, Lawrence S.
Andrade, Adriana S. A.
Flexner, Charles

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