Antibiotics, Antineoplastic

Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Although we do not know everything about aging, we now know enough to start its pharmacologic suppression using clinically approved drugs. Aging turns out to be driven by sensing-signaling pathways (such as the mTOR pathway). Given that some inhibitors of the mTOR pathway are already in clinical use, there is a unique opportunity to suppress aging, while treating and preventing diseases. By itself this will answer some burning questions in gerontology.

Author(s): 
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.
Publication Title: 
Scientific American
Author(s): 
Stipp, David
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Chronic inhibition of the protein synthesis regulator mTORC1 through rapamycin extends life span in mice, with longer extension in females than in males. Whether rapamycin treatment inhibits protein synthesis or whether it does so differently between sexes has not been examined. UM-HET3 mice were fed a control or rapamycin-supplemented (Rap) diet for 12 weeks. Protein synthesis in mixed, cytosolic (cyto), and mitochondrial (mito) fractions and DNA synthesis and mTORC1 signaling were determined in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver.

Author(s): 
Drake, Joshua C.
Peelor, Frederick F.
Biela, Laurie M.
Watkins, Molly K.
Miller, Richard A.
Hamilton, Karyn L.
Miller, Benjamin F.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: A major obstacle for successful cancer treatment often is the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drugs with improved efficacy against tumor cells and with less toxicity on normal cells. Artesunate (ART), a powerful anti-malarial herbal compound, has been shown to inhibit growth of various tumor cell lines in vitro and of xenografted Kaposi's sarcoma in mice in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ART exerts its cytotoxicity have not been elucidated.

Author(s): 
Efferth, Thomas
Giaisi, Marco
Merling, Annette
Krammer, Peter H.
Li-Weber, Min
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The plant Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian ginseng, is widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat tumors, inflammation, arthritis, asthma, and hypertension. Chemical investigation of the roots and leaves of this plant has yielded bioactive withanolides. Earlier studies showed that withanolides inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and proliferation of tumor cells.

Author(s): 
Ichikawa, Haruyo
Takada, Yasunari
Shishodia, Shishir
Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula
Nair, Muraleedharan G.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Hyponidd is a herbomineral formulation composed of the extracts of ten medicinal plants ( Momordica charantia, Melia azadirachta, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia , Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Emblica officinalis, Eugenia jambolana, Cassia auriculata and Curcuma longa). We have investigated hyponidd for its possible antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg kg(-1) body weight).

Author(s): 
Babu, P. Subash
Stanely Mainzen Prince, P.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Nardostachys jatamansi is a medicinally important herb of Indian origin. It has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. We have evaluated the effect of N. jatamansi (rhizomes) on the biochemical changes, tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in doxorubicin (adriamycin)-induced cardiac damage. Preliminary studies on the effect of the graded dose of extract showed that 500 mg kg(-1) orally for seven days was found to be optimum and hence all further study was carried out with this particular dose.

Author(s): 
Subashini, Rajakannu
Yogeeta, Surinderkumar
Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam
Devaki, Thiruvengadam
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The plant Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian ginseng, is widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat tumors, inflammation, arthritis, asthma, and hypertension. Chemical investigation of the roots and leaves of this plant has yielded bioactive withanolides. Earlier studies showed that withanolides inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and proliferation of tumor cells.

Author(s): 
Ichikawa, Haruyo
Takada, Yasunari
Shishodia, Shishir
Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula
Nair, Muraleedharan G.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruits and seeds of Semecarpus anacardium are used widely for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases in the Ayurvedic and Sidda systems of medicine in India. AIM OF THE STUDY: The principal aim of this investigation was to isolate and characterize the anticancer compound from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium nut. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioactivity-tailored isolation and detailed chemical characterization were used to identify the active compound.

Author(s): 
Nair, P. K. Raveedran
Melnick, Steven J.
Wnuk, Stanislaw F.
Rapp, Magdalena
Escalon, Enrique
Ramachandran, Cheppail
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant autosomal-dominant inherited neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the Huntingtin gene. Transcriptional dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress have all been proposed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HD. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of mithramycin, a clinically approved guanosine-cytosine-rich DNA binding antitumor antibiotic.

Author(s): 
Ferrante, Robert J.
Ryu, Hoon
Kubilus, James K.
D'Mello, Santosh
Sugars, Katharine L.
Lee, Junghee
Lu, Peiyuan
Smith, Karen
Browne, Susan
Beal, M. Flint
Kristal, Bruce S.
Stavrovskaya, Irina G.
Hewett, Sandra
Rubinsztein, David C.
Langley, Brett
Ratan, Rajiv R.

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