Infection of normal human diploid fibroblasts (HF) with the DNA tumor virus simian virus 40 (SV) leads to an extension of lifespan and concomitant increase in the levels of the viral large tumor antigen (T antigen) and the cellular protein p53. The intracellular localization of T antigen and p53 was mostly nuclear in both SVpre-crisis and SVpost-crisis cells, however certain population doubling (PD) of the SVpre-crisis cells exhibited some cytoplasmic staining. The DNA content of SVpre-crisis cells shifted to tetraploidy and the SVpost-crisis cells were near-tetraploid.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of benefit generosity and household health care financial burden on the demand for specialty drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Enrollment, claims, and benefit design information for 35 large private employers during 2000-2005. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated multivariate models of the effects of benefit generosity and household financial burden on initiation and continuation of biologic therapies.
The vast majority of the 1-2 million malaria associated deaths that occur each year are due to anemia and cerebral malaria (the attachment of erythrocytes containing mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum to the endothelial cells that line the vascular beds of the brain). A "model system" for the study of cerebral malaria employs amelanotic melanoma cells as the "target" cells in an in vitro cytoadherence assay.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
We have produced monoclonal antibodies against artelinic acid and investigated the reactivity with artemisinin drugs and metabolites. Antibody F170-10 is fairly specific for artelinic acid but does bind artemisinin and artemether (3-5% cross-reactivity). Dihydroartemisinin, artesunate, and metabolites of artemisinin showed less reactivity. With this antibody, an inhibition ELISA has been set up to detect artemisinin compounds in urine. In healthy subjects who received a single oral dose of artemisinin, artemether, artesunate or dihydroartemisinin, ELISA reactivity in urine was found.
BACKGROUND: In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ) remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking.
Tumour Biology: The Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was purified from GW-39 human tumor xenografts in hamsters by immunoaffinity chromatography. Binding of the antigen to immobilized monoclonal antibody provided a high degree of purification of CEA in a single step. A recovery of 79% and a 750-fold purification were obtained. The purified CEA has a molecular size of 180 kilodaltons, an isoelectric point of 4.4, and a specific activity of 0.94. About 73% of the radiolabeled GW-39 CEA reacted with goat anti-CEA serum.
Murine IgG subclasses show different affinities when they react with protein A. The temperature of application of the sample to protein A-Sepharose markedly influences the interaction of certain antibodies with this specific adsorbent. Elution of weakly bound mouse IgG could be carried out by mild temperature changes instead of lowering the pH, and this should be advantageous with certain immunoglobulins that are labile under acidic conditions.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are gaining significant importance at present due to rapid spread of the diseases, high cost of treatment, and the increased risk of transmission of other STDs and AIDS. Current therapies available for symptomatic treatment of STDs and AIDS are quite expensive beyond the reach of common man and are associated with emergence of drug resistance. Many patients of STDs and AIDS are seeking help from alternative systems of medicines such as Unani, Chinese, Ayurvedic, naturopathy, and homeopathy.
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for centuries as a memory enhancer. Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins classified as pseudojujubogenin and jujubogenin glycosides are reported as the active components in this plant. In this study, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against bacopaside I, a major pseudojujubogenin glycoside found in Brahmi, was produced and characterised. Bacopaside I was conjugated with bovine albumin serum to prepare an immunogen.