Antibodies, Protozoan

Publication Title: 
European Journal of Immunology

Antibodies (Abs) are critical for immunity to malaria. However, Plasmodium falciparum specific Abs decline rapidly in absence of reinfection, suggesting impaired immunological memory. This study determines whether residents of Sweden that were treated for malaria following international travel maintained long-lasting malaria-specific Abs and memory B cells (MBCs).

Author(s): 
Ndungu, Francis M.
Lundblom, Klara
Rono, Josea
Illingworth, Joseph
Eriksson, Sara
F‰rnert, Anna
Publication Title: 
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

The vast majority of the 1-2 million malaria associated deaths that occur each year are due to anemia and cerebral malaria (the attachment of erythrocytes containing mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum to the endothelial cells that line the vascular beds of the brain). A "model system" for the study of cerebral malaria employs amelanotic melanoma cells as the "target" cells in an in vitro cytoadherence assay.

Author(s): 
Smith, H.
Crandall, I.
Prudhomme, J.
Sherman, I. W.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing antimalarial drugs that appear to form adducts in situ with the Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) homolog. Immunoprecipitation with antibody to recombinant TCTP suggests that adducts may form with both monomeric and dimeric TCTP.

Author(s): 
Bhisutthibhan, J.
Meshnick, S. R.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In a treatment re-infection study of 206 Papua New Guinean school children, we examined risk of reinfection and symptomatic malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. Although children acquired a similar number of polymerase chain reaction-detectable Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in six months of active follow-up (P. falciparum = 5.00, P. vivax = 5.28), they were 21 times more likely to develop symptomatic P. falciparum malaria (1.17/year) than P. vivax malaria (0.06/year). Children greater than nine years of age had a reduced risk of acquiring P.

Author(s): 
Michon, Pascal
Cole-Tobian, Jennifer L.
Dabod, Elijah
Schoepflin, Sonja
Igu, Jennifer
Susapu, Melinda
Tarongka, Nandao
Zimmerman, Peter A.
Reeder, John C.
Beeson, James G.
Schofield, Louis
King, Christopher L.
Mueller, Ivo
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Adequate malaria diagnosis and treatment remain major difficulties in rural sub-Saharan Africa. These issues deserve renewed attention in the light of first-line treatment with expensive artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) and changing patterns of transmission intensity. This study describes diagnostic and treatment practices in Mto wa Mbu, an area that used to be hyperendemic for malaria, but where no recent assessments of transmission intensity have been conducted. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective data were collected from the two major village health clinics.

Author(s): 
Mwanziva, Charles
Shekalaghe, Seif
Ndaro, Arnold
Mengerink, Bianca
Megiroo, Simon
Mosha, Frank
Sauerwein, Robert
Drakeley, Chris
Gosling, Roly
Bousema, Teun
Publication Title: 
Infection and Immunity

Substantial evidence indicates that antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Different malaria antigens induce distinct immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses, but the importance of different responses in protective immunity from malaria is not known and the factors determining subclass responses in vivo are poorly understood.

Author(s): 
Stanisic, Danielle I.
Richards, Jack S.
McCallum, Fiona J.
Michon, Pascal
King, Christopher L.
Schoepflin, Sonja
Gilson, Paul R.
Murphy, Vincent J.
Anders, Robin F.
Mueller, Ivo
Beeson, James G.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of anti-malarial drugs is determined by the level of parasite susceptibility, anti-malarial drug bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, and host factors including immunity. Host immunity improves the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, but the mechanism and magnitude of this effect has not been characterized. This study characterized the effects of 'immune' plasma to Plasmodium falciparumon the in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum to anti-malarial drugs.

Author(s): 
Monatrakul, Preeyaporn
Mungthin, Mathirut
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Krudsood, Srivicha
Udomsangpetch, Rachanee
Wilairatana, Polrat
White, Nicholas J.
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity. A significant concern is whether IPTc increases children's susceptibility to subsequent malaria infection by altering their anti-Plasmodium acquired immunity. METHODS: To investigate this concern, IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract were measured in Senegalese children (6 months-5 years old) who had received three rounds of IPTc with artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (or placebo) at monthly intervals eight months earlier.

Author(s): 
Boulanger, Denis
Sarr, Jean Biram
Fillol, Florie
Sokhna, Cheikh
Cissé, Badara
Schacht, Anne-Marie
Trape, Jean-François
Riveau, Gilles
Simondon, François
Greenwood, Brian
Remoué, Franck
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins on the Cambodian and Myanmar-Thai borders poses severe threats to malaria control. We investigated whether increasing or splitting the dose of the short-half-life drug artesunate improves parasite clearance in falciparum malaria in the 2 regions.

Author(s): 
Das, Debashish
Tripura, Rupam
Phyo, Aung Pyae
Lwin, Khin Maung
Tarning, Joel
Lee, Sue J.
Hanpithakpong, Warunee
Stepniewska, Kasia
Ménard, Didier
Ringwald, Pascal
Silamut, Kamolrat
Imwong, Mallika
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Yi, Poravuth
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Lindegardh, Niklas
Socheat, Duong
Nguon, Chea
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance, a long parasite clearance half-life in response to artemisinin, has been described in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. Few baseline half-lives have been reported from Africa, where artemisinins were recently introduced. METHODS: We treated P. falciparum malaria in 215 Malian children aged 0.5-15 years with artesunate (0, 24, 48 hours) and amodiaquine (72, 96, 120 hours).

Author(s): 
Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.
Doumbia, Saibou
Chiang, Serena
Zeituni, Amir E.
Konate, Drissa S.
Doumbouya, Mory
Keita, Abdoul S.
Stepniewska, Kasia
Traore, Karim
Diakite, Seidina A. S.
Ndiaye, Daouda
Sa, Juliana M.
Anderson, Jennifer M.
Fay, Michael P.
Long, Carole A.
Diakite, Mahamadou
Fairhurst, Rick M.

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