The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.
Telomere length and telomerase activity have received increased attention as markers of cellular aging, but the determinants of inter-individual variation in these markers are incompletely understood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may be particularly important for telomere and telomerase dynamics due to its dramatic impact on peripheral blood lymphocyte composition, i.e., increasing the number and proportions of highly differentiated T cells that are characterized by shorter telomere length (TL) and lowered telomerase activity (TA).
The efficacy of Stresroak--an Ayurvedic product (India) was tested in cockerel chicks. Eighty day-old chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 20 birds per group. Group 1 received Stresroak at the recommended dosage of 1 ml/20 birds for 5 days prior to the NDV vaccinations (i/o, LaSota and Komarov). Group 2 received Stresroak at double the recommended dosage prior to vaccinations. Group 3 received no treatment but had all the afore mentioned vaccinations while Group 4 received neither treatments nor vaccinations and therefore served as the control group.
The goal of this study was to define the impact of colonization of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on development of intestinal and systemic B cell responses to human rotavirus (HRV). The LAB-specific and total B cell responses were also assessed. Gn pigs were inoculated with LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri) and virulent Wa strain HRV (LAB+HRV+), HRV only (LAB-HRV+), LAB only (LAB+HRV-) or mock (LAB-HRV-).
OBJECTIVE: Experimental infection of rats with human adenovirus type 36 (Ad-36) promotes adipogenesis and improves insulin sensitivity in a manner reminiscent of the pharmacologic effect of thiozolinediones. To exploit the potential of the viral proteins as a therapeutic target for treating insulin resistance, this study investigated the ability of Ad-36 to induce metabolically favorable changes in human adipose tissue. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We determined whether Ad-36 increases glucose uptake in human adipose tissue explants.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have gained increasing interest for their use as vaccines due to their repetitive antigenic structure that is capable of efficiently activating the immune system. The efficacy of VLP immunization may lie in its ability to traffic into draining lymph nodes while activating antigen-presenting cells to initiate the orchestration of signals required for the development of a robust immune response. Currently, there is no comprehensive study showing the correlation of different VLP vaccination routes to immune outcome.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) protects against influenza by mucosal activation of the immune system. Studies in animals and adults have demonstrated that probiotics improve the immune response to mucosally delivered vaccines. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus GG (LGG) would function as an immune adjuvant to increase rates of seroconversion after LAIV administration. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to determine whether LGG improved rates of seroconversion after administration of LAIV.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parenthood predicts host resistance to the common cold among healthy volunteers experimentally exposed to a common cold virus. METHODS: Participants were 795 healthy volunteers (age range = 18-55 years) enrolled in one of three viral-challenge studies conducted from 1993 to 2004.
1. This study examined the effect of increasing amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition in serum and antibody production following a standard vaccination programme in growing turkeys. Turkey poults were fed on 5 diets containing 75g/kg added fat made up of different proportions of palm and soyabean oils, and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and necrotic enteritis according to a standard vaccination programme. Blood samples were taken before and one week after each vaccination. 2.
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are suggested to have immunosuppressive effects; exposure in utero and in the first years of life is of special concern as fetuses and small children are highly vulnerable to toxicant exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-natal exposure to PFAS on responses to pediatric vaccines and immune-related health outcomes in children up to 3 years of age.