Recent studies have reported that APC can present particulate exogenous Ag in the context of class I MHC to CD8+ CTL, and our laboratory demonstrated that IL-3 could enhance CTL generation to exogenous Ag. In this paper, we wished to determine whether presentation of particulate Ag could be enhanced by IL-3. A T cell hybridoma, B3Z86/90.14 (B3Z) restricted to Ova/Kb, was used as an indicator for presentation of particulate Ag with class I MHC. When activated, this hybridoma expresses lacZ, allowing a simple colorimetric measurement of Ag-specific T cell stimulation.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the patterns of TLR2-, TLR3- and TLR9-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain.
Cannabinoids are a group of compounds present in Cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.). They mediate their physiological and behavioral effects by activating specific cannabinoid receptors. With the recent discovery of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the endocannabinoid system, research in this field has expanded exponentially.
Triptolide is a biologically active component purified from Chinese herbal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. It is widely used in East Asia for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, Bechect's disease, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. However, its immunological mechanisms are poorly understood. IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related heterodimeric cytokines that share the common subunit p40. They are produced by APCs and are key factors in the generation and effector functions of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
γδ T cells are innate lymphocytes that recognize and kill a range of tumor cells and are currently being explored as a target for tumor immunotherapy. However, γδ T cells play a complex role in cancer and can promote, as well as inhibit, tumor growth. In addition to tumor cell killing, γδ T cells express a number of cytokines and other soluble factors in response to tumors. Soluble factors expressed by γδ T cells in these settings include interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, IL-17, and a number of growth factors.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Periploca sepium Bge, a traditional Chinese herb medicine, is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in China. Followed the bioactivity-guided isolation, the most potent immunosuppressive compound, periplocoside E (PSE), a pregnane glycoside, had been identified from P. sepium Bge. We investigated the immunosuppressive effects of PSE in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that PSE in a dose-dependent manner significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A and mixed lymphocyte culture reaction at no cytotoxic concentrations (<5 microM).
Berbamine (BM) is an herbal compound derived from Berberis vulgaris L commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we show that BM has potent anti-inflammatory properties through novel regulatory mechanisms, leading to reduced encephalitogenic T cell responses and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The treatment effect of BM was attributable to its selective inhibitory effect on the production and action of IFN-gamma in CD4(+) T cells, which was mediated through altered STAT4 expression in T cells.