OBJECTIVE: Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bromelain treatment in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). METHODS: To establish AAD, mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) OVA/alum and challenged with daily OVA aerosols. Mice were treated i.p. with either saline, 2 or 6 mg/kg bromelain, twice daily for four consecutive days.
CD4 T cells can be primarily polarized to differentiate into Th1 or Th2 cells. CD44 is a marker of T cell activation and a property of long-lived memory cells and implicated in cell migration, activation, and differentiation. To date, whether CD44 has a role in regulating Th1-Th2 differentiation has not been determined. In this study, we compared Th1 and Th2 responses in wild-type and CD44-deficient mice in response to sheep RBC and chicken OVA, as well as examined Th1-Th2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro from CD44-sufficient and CD44-deficient naive CD4 T cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
How cancer cells bind to vascular surfaces and extravasate into target organs is an underappreciated, yet essential step in metastasis. We postulate that the metastatic process involves discrete adhesive interactions between circulating cancer cells and microvascular endothelial cells. Sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)) on prostate cancer (PCa) cells is thought to promote metastasis by mediating PCa cell binding to microvascular endothelial (E)-selectin. Yet, regulation of sLe(X) and related E-selectin ligand expression in PCa cells is a poorly understood factor in PCa metastasis.
In the current study, we investigated if CD44 polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis identified a novel and unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, designated as CD44 Ex2+14 A>G) in the CD44 intron 1 region in 84% of breast cancer patients, which was significantly higher than that seen in normal donors.
CD44 is expressed by a variety of cells, including glial and T cells. Furthermore, in the demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis, CD44 expression is chronically elevated. In this study, we demonstrate that targeted deletion of CD44 attenuated myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitomyelitis (EAE) through novel regulatory mechanisms affecting Th differentiation.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in many cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis and tumor metastasis, suggesting that CD44 may play an important role in breast cancer development. In this study, we examined whether CD44 exon 2 polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms were present in the CD44 exon 2 coding region in female patients with breast cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of immune responses. There is evidence that miRNAs also participate in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but how the miRNAs regulate the pathogenesis of MS is still under investigation. The identification of new members of the miRNA family associated with the pathogenesis of MS could facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that the level of miRNA let-7e is significantly upregulated in EAE, an animal model of MS using miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR.
The immunophenotype of HT29 human colon cancer cells implanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice was assessed in primary tumours and their metastases in the lungs using an indirect immunohistochemical method. After primary tumours were surgically removed, the metastases were given time to develop, thus paralleling the clinical situation. While vimentin was negative in both primary and secondary tumours, E-cadherin was present as membrane-bound labelling in the primary tumours only.