We analyzed sites of macronuclear telomere addition at a single genetic locus in Paramecium tetraurelia. We showed that in homozygous wild-type cells, differential genomic processing during macronuclear development resulted in the A surface antigen gene being located 8, 13, or 26 kilobases upstream from a macronuclear telomere. We describe variable rearrangements that occurred at the telomere 8 kilobases from the A gene. A mutant (d48) that forms a telomere near the 5' end of the A gene was also analyzed.
Maintenance of intestinal mucosal epithelial integrity requires polyamines that modulate the expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recently, polyamines were shown to regulate the subcellular localization of the RNA-binding protein HuR, which stabilizes its target transcripts such as nucleophosmin and p53 mRNAs. The activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) mRNA encodes a member of the ATF/CRE-binding protein family of transcription factors and was computationally predicted to be a target of HuR.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic de-differentiation, liver development, and malignant transformation are processes in which the levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine are tightly regulated by 2 genes: methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A). MAT1A is expressed in the adult liver, whereas MAT2A expression primarily is extrahepatic and is associated strongly with liver proliferation. The mechanisms that regulate these expression patterns are not completely understood.
BACKGROUND: HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-induced inflammatory response plays an important role in HIV PI-associated dyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications. This study examined the effect of berberine, a traditional herb medicine, on HIV PI-induced inflammatory response and further investigated the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms in macrophages. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cultured mouse J774A.1 macrophages and primary mouse macrophages were used in this study. The expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were detected by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA.
Human methionine adenosyltransferase 2beta (MAT2beta) encodes for two major splicing variants, V1 and V2, which are differentially expressed in normal tissues. Both variants are induced in human liver cancer and positively regulate growth. The aim of this work was to identify interacting proteins of V1 and V2. His-tagged V1 and V2 were overexpressed in Rosetta pLysS cells, purified, and used in a pulldown assay to identify interacting proteins from human colon cancer cell line RKO cell lysates. The eluted lysates were subjected to Western blot and in solution proteomic analyses.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a major role in the control of messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover and translation rates. We examined the role of the RBP, human antigen R (HuR), during cholestatic liver injury and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. HuR silencing attenuated fibrosis development in vivo after BDL, reducing liver damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and collagen and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. HuR expression increased in activated HSCs from bile duct ligation mice and during HSC activation in vitro, and HuR silencing markedly reduced HSC activation.
NK cells are a heterogenous population of innate lymphocytes with diverse functional attributes critical for early protection from viral infections. We have previously reported a decrease in influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in 6-mo-old C57BL/6 calorically restricted (CR) mice. In the current study, we extend our findings on the influence of CR on NK cell phenotype and function in the absence of infection. We demonstrate that reduced mature NK cell subsets result in increased frequencies of CD127(+) NK cells in CR mice, skewing the function of the total NK cell pool.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: Our earlier findings suggest that patients with musculoskeletal complaints have lower numbers and percentages of natural killer (NK) cells than asymptomatic subjects. This study examines patient lymphocyte profiles, as a secondary outcome measure, in a trial of manipulative therapies to treat chronic low back pain (LBP) of mechanical origin. DESIGN: The patients were compared in a randomized controlled trial. Baseline measures were collected at the initial visit; all patients were scheduled for 11 treatments in 14 days.