Antimanic Agents

Publication Title: 
L'Encephale

INTRODUCTION: Emotional reactivity and sleep constitute key dimensions of bipolar disorder. Emotional reactivity referred to emotion response intensity and emotion response threshold. Higher emotion reactivity is described during both mood episodes and periods of remission in bipolar disorder. As well, sleep disturbances are described during both acute episodes and euthymic periods in bipolar disorder. Links between sleep and emotion regulation start to be studied in general population.

Author(s): 
Boudebesse, Carole
Henry, Chantal
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for treating anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES: A literature search from 1950 to week 1 of August 2009 was conducted via OVID and the National Institutes of Health's clinical trials online databases. Search terms included anxiety, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and treatment. Reference lists of identified articles were also searched.

Author(s): 
Rakofsky, Jeffrey J.
Dunlop, Boadie W.
Publication Title: 
Current Clinical Pharmacology

Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic and mood-stabilizing compound successfully used in the clinics since many decades. During the last few years, research on VPA revitalized. VPA has profound impact on nuclear chromatin structure in target cells by impinging on epigenetic mechanisms such as inhibition of histone deacetylase HDAC1, with implications for HIV and cancer treatment, and for the direct reprogramming in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. VPA can thus act at multiple levels and in several cellular systems.

Author(s): 
Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi
Longhitano, Calogero
Vinciguerra, Manlio
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Unraveling the epigenetic status of neuronal cells in the brain is critical to our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, which may reflect a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Several epigenetic studies of mood disorders have been conducted with postmortem brains. However, proper interpretation of the results is hampered by our scant understanding of the effects of mood stabilizers on the epigenetic status of neuronal cells.

Author(s): 
Asai, Tatsuro
Bundo, Miki
Sugawara, Hiroko
Sunaga, Fumiko
Ueda, Junko
Tanaka, Gen
Ishigooka, Jun
Kasai, Kiyoto
Kato, Tadafumi
Iwamoto, Kazuya
Publication Title: 
Bipolar Disorders

OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence implicates the potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 2 and 3 (KCNQ2 and KCNQ3) genes in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BPD). Reduced KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 gene expression might lead to a loss of inhibitory M-current and an increase in neuronal hyperexcitability in disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate epigenetic and gene expression associations of the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes with BPD.

Author(s): 
Kaminsky, Zachary
Jones, Ilenna
Verma, Ranjana
Saleh, Lena
Trivedi, Hersh
Guintivano, Jerry
Akman, Ryan
Zandi, Peter
Lee, Richard S.
Potash, James B.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Biological Sciences

Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions at exon 1 of the huntingtin (Htt) gene, which encodes for a mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Prominent symptoms of HD include motor dysfunction, characterized by chorea; psychiatric disturbances such as mood and personality changes; and cognitive decline that may lead to dementia.

Author(s): 
Scheuing, Lisa
Chiu, Chi-Tso
Liao, Hsiao-Mei
Linares, Gabriel R.
Chuang, De-Maw
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder of public health importance affecting >1% of the Swedish population. Despite progress, patients still suffer from chronic mood switches with potential severe consequences. Thus, early detection, diagnosis and initiation of correct treatment are critical.

Author(s): 
Hayashi, A.
Le Gal, K.
Sˆdersten, K.
Vizlin-Hodzic, D.
≈gren, H.
Funa, K.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatrike = Psychiatriki

The treatment of bipolar disorder is a current challenge for clinicians and despite progress in psychopharmacology, options remain limited and results are often unsatisfactory. Current research focuses on finding new pharmaceutical agents for all phases of bipolar disorder, i.e. mania, bipolar depression and maintenance. Particularly, relapse prevention and longterm stabilization is a major therapeutic target. Combination treatment and polypharmacy are the most common choices concerning relapse prevention.

Author(s): 
Dimitrakopoulos, S.
Konstantakopoulos, G.
Publication Title: 
Addiction Biology

The synaptic signaling mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95, SAP-90, Dlg4) is a key orchestrator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and glutamatergic synapses, which are known to be major sites of EtOH's behavioral actions. However, the potential contribution of PSD-95 to EtOH-related behaviors has not been established.

Author(s): 
Camp, Marguerite C.
Feyder, Michael
Ihne, Jessica
Palachick, Benjamin
Hurd, Benita
Karlsson, Rose-Marie
Noronha, Bianca
Chen, Yi-Chyan
Coba, Marcelo P.
Grant, Seth G. N.
Holmes, Andrew
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews recent trends in the production, supply and price of the active ingredients as well as finished ACT products. Production and cost data provided in this paper are based on an ongoing project (Artepal). Stability data are derived from a development project on rectal artesunate. DISCUSSION: The artemisinin raw material and its derivatives appear to be very stable compared to the finished products.

Author(s): 
Kindermans, Jean-Marie
Pilloy, Jacques
Olliaro, Piero
Gomes, Melba

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