Antiparkinson Agents

Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology

BACKGROUND: Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been shown to be safe and to have beneficial effects on cognition, function, behavior, and global patient status in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in studies lasting 3-6 months. It is approved in the U.S. and Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe AD and is currently under investigation for mild to moderate AD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety of memantine in patients with mild to moderate AD and to investigate the tolerability of once-daily dose administration.

Author(s): 
Ott, Brian R.
Blake, Lesley M.
Kagan, Ethel
Resnick, Malca
Memantine MEM-MD-11AB Study Group
Publication Title: 
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine

The purpose of the new drugs for Parkinson's disease is control of the long-term levodopa treatment syndromes, especially wearing-off phenomenon and dyskinesia. Therefore, they show long T1/2. Most of them are classified into dopamine agonists. Others are monoamine oxidase B inhibitor and cathecole-o-methyltransferase inhibitor. Marketed dopamine agonists are bromocriptine, pergolide, talipexole, and cabergoline in Japan. Except talipexole, they are all ergot alkaloid derivatives. Their affinity for dopamine receptor is D2 group, and their T1/2 are longer than levodopa.

Author(s): 
Hasegawa, K.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy.

Author(s): 
Elkins, Gary R.
Ramsey, Derek
Yu, Yimin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD). METHODS: Eight Parkinson's disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised, controlled, double blind crossover trial.

Author(s): 
Katzenschlager, R.
Evans, A.
Manson, A.
Patsalos, P. N.
Ratnaraj, N.
Watt, H.
Timmermann, L.
Van der Giessen, R.
Lees, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M.

Author(s): 
Lieu, Christopher A.
Kunselman, Allen R.
Manyam, Bala V.
Venkiteswaran, Kala
Subramanian, Thyagarajan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. Our study examined the efficacy and tolerability of HP-200, derived from Mucuna prurient, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease (46 male and 14 female) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 59 +/- 9 years were treated in an open study for 12 weeks.

Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD). METHODS: Eight Parkinson's disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised, controlled, double blind crossover trial.

Author(s): 
Katzenschlager, R.
Evans, A.
Manson, A.
Patsalos, P. N.
Ratnaraj, N.
Watt, H.
Timmermann, L.
Van der Giessen, R.
Lees, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no neurorestorative therapeutic treatment is currently available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally uses Mucuna pruriens to treat Parkinson's disease. In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

Author(s): 
Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan
Tharakan, Binu
Manyam, Bala V.
Publication Title: 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M.

Author(s): 
Lieu, Christopher A.
Kunselman, Allen R.
Manyam, Bala V.
Venkiteswaran, Kala
Subramanian, Thyagarajan
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Hyoscyamus species is one of the four plants used in Ayurveda for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since Hyoscyamus niger was found to contain negligible levels of L-DOPA, we evaluated neuroprotective potential, if any, of characterized petroleum ether and aqueous methanol extracts of its seeds in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD in mice. Air dried authenticated H. niger seeds were sequentially extracted using petroleum ether and aqueous methanol and were characterized employing HPLC-electrochemistry and LCMS.

Author(s): 
Sengupta, T.
Vinayagam, J.
Nagashayana, N.
Gowda, B.
Jaisankar, P.
Mohanakumar, K. P.

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