Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active

Publication Title: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychosocial impact of lipodystrophy on the lifestyles of HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 HIV positive patients on HAART at an outpatient sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV clinic in central London. Qualitative data from interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory to elicit key categories and subcategories.

Author(s): 
Power, R.
Tate, H. L.
McGill, S. M.
Taylor, C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1-infected individuals prevents sexual transmission if viral load is suppressed. METHODS: Participants were HIV-1-infected partners randomized to early ART (CD4 350-550) in HPTN052 (n = 886, median follow-up = 2.1 years), a clinical trial of early ART to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples at 13 sites in 9 countries. Adherence was assessed through pill count (dichotomized at <95%) and through self-report items.

Author(s): 
Safren, Steven A.
Mayer, Kenneth H.
Ou, San-San
McCauley, Marybeth
Grinsztejn, Beatriz
Hosseinipour, Mina C.
Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran
Gamble, Theresa
Hoffman, Irving
Celentano, David
Chen, Ying Qing
Cohen, Myron S.
HPTN 052 Study Team
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Presumptive treatment of malaria is common practice in malaria endemic resource-limited settings. With the changing epidemiology of malaria and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), there is increasing need for parasite-based malaria case management to prevent unnecessary use of anti-malarial medicines, improve patient care in parasite-positive patients and identify parasite-negative patients in whom another diagnosis must be sought.

Author(s): 
Nakanjako, Damalie
Kiragga, Agnes N.
Castelnuovo, Barbara
Kyabayinze, Daniel J.
Kamya, Moses R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV/malaria-coinfected patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemisinin-based combination therapy has potential for drug interactions. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine after administration of a single dose of 80/480 mg of artemether/lumefantrine to HIV-infected adults, taken with and without lopinavir/ritonavir.

Author(s): 
Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline
Lamorde, Mohammed
Okaba-Kayom, Violet
Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet
Katabira, Elly
Hanpithakpong, Warunee
Pakker, Nadine
Dorlo, Thomas P. C.
Tarning, Joel
Lindegardh, Niklas
de Vries, Peter J.
Back, David
Khoo, Saye
Merry, Concepta
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine.

Author(s): 
Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa
van Wyk, Albert
Nwauche, Chijioke
Beshir, Khalid B.
Kaur, Harparkash
Sutherland, Colin J.
Publication Title: 
AIDS care

Between 1995 and 1997, 1,675 HIV-positive men and women using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) were enrolled into the Bastyr University AIDS Research Center's Alternative Medicine Care Outcomes in AIDS (AMCOA) study. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the AMCOA study collected information on participant demographics, health status and use of conventional and CAM therapies.

Author(s): 
Standish, L. J.
Greene, K. B.
Bain, S.
Reeves, C.
Sanders, F.
Wines, R. C.
Turet, P.
Kim, J. G.
Calabrese, C.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between survival and use of psychological and spiritual activities practiced over 1 year in HIV-positive (HIV+) patients. METHOD: Nine hundred one HIV+ adults living in the United States using at least 1 form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) completed a questionnaire 3 times between 1995 and 1998.

Author(s): 
Fitzpatrick, Annette L.
Standish, Leanna J.
Berger, Jose
Kim, Jung G.
Calabrese, Carlo
Polissar, Nayak
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. METHODS: A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas.

Author(s): 
Zou, James
Yamanaka, Yvonne
John, Muze
Watt, Melissa
Ostermann, Jan
Thielman, Nathan
Publication Title: 
AIDS and behavior

Beliefs about antiretroviral treatment (ART) are crucial for treatment success but not well documented in sub-Sahara African countries. We studied the frequency of false beliefs about ART in 389 ART patients in Livingstone, Zambia. Despite intensive pre-ART counseling, we find that more than half of the patients hold at least one false belief about ART effectiveness, side effects, or the consequences of ART non-retention or non-adherence.

Author(s): 
Nozaki, Ikuma
Kuriyama, Mika
Manyepa, Pauline
Zyambo, Matilda K.
Kakimoto, Kazuhiro
Bärnighausen, Till
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended when the absolute CD4(+) T lymphocyte count is <200 cells/mm(3), and it should be considered when that count is > or =200, although the optimal timing when it is > or =200 is unclear. Because preliminary data had suggested that a low CD4(+) T lymphocyte percentage (%CD4) is associated with disease progression in persons initiating HAART who have a higher absolute CD4, we sought to further characterize the predictive utility of %CD4.

Author(s): 
Hulgan, Todd
Shepherd, Bryan E.
Raffanti, Stephen P.
Fusco, Jennifer S.
Beckerman, Robin
Barkanic, Gema
Sterling, Timothy R.

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