Antitubercular Agents

Publication Title: 
Human & Experimental Toxicology

Terminalia chebula Gertn. (Combetraceae) is an important herbal drug in Ayurvedic pharmacopea. In the present study, a 95% ethanolic extract of T. chebula (fruit) (TC extract), which was chemically characterized on the basis of chebuloside II as a marker, was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced toxicity. TC extract was found to prevent the hepatotoxicity caused by the administration of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) (in combination) in a sub-chronic mode (12 weeks).

Author(s): 
Tasduq, S. A.
Singh, K.
Satti, N. K.
Gupta, D. K.
Suri, K. A.
Johri, R. K.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: The Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

SETTING: Since 2005, private pharmacies linked to the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) and the Municipal Health Department in Phnom Penh have referred tuberculosis (TB) symptomatic patients to public sector TB clinics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes and practices of pharmacy-initiated referral service providers in Phnom Penh from 2005 to 2010. METHODS: In a qualitative study, participants were purposively selected from the register of pharmacy owners providing referral services. Discussions were conducted in Khmer by trained facilitators.

Author(s): 
Bell, C. A.
Eang, M. T.
Dareth, M.
Rothmony, E.
Duncan, G. J.
Saini, B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Natural Products

Four new partially acylated tetrasaccharides of 11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (1-4) were isolated from a methanolic extract of Ipomoea tyrianthina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The resin glycoside composition of I. tyrianthina varied with the location of growth in Mexico.

Author(s): 
León-Rivera, Ismael
Mirón-López, Gumersindo
Molina-Salinas, Gloria María
Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel
Estrada-Soto, Samuel
del Carmen Gutiérrez, María
Alonso-Cortes, Daniel
Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel
Rios, María Yolanda
Said-Fernández, Salvador
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Chemical Society

Although the antimalarial agent artemisinin itself is not active against tuberculosis, conjugation to a mycobacterial-specific siderophore (microbial iron chelator) analogue induces significant and selective antituberculosis activity, including activity against multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The conjugate also retains potent antimalarial activity.

Author(s): 
Miller, Marvin J.
Walz, Andrew J.
Zhu, Helen
Wu, Chunrui
Moraski, Garrett
Möllmann, Ute
Tristani, Esther M.
Crumbliss, Alvin L.
Ferdig, Michael T.
Checkley, Lisa
Edwards, Rachel L.
Boshoff, Helena I.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The influence of Liv.100 on the hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis drugs [isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) pyrazinamide (PZA)] was studied in male albino rats. INH, RMP, and PZA were proved to be the most hepatotoxic. Rats were treated with antituberculosis drugs daily for a period of 6 weeks by intragastric administration. The combined use of antituberculosis drugs elevated the levels of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome-b5. A significant increase was observed in the levels of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and NADH-cytochrome-b5 reductases after antitubercular drug administration.

Author(s): 
Saraswathy, S. D.
Shyamala Devi, C. S.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: The Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and practice patterns of non-allopathic indigenous medical practitioners (IMPs) regarding tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Seventy-four IMPs practising in Naraingarh block, a rural area of Haryana State, India, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: Fifty-four per cent (40/74) of the IMPs saw two to five TB patients every month. Sixty-one per cent (46/74) reported that they based their diagnosis of TB on symptoms alone, whereas 38% use diagnostic tests such as chest X-ray, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and sputum examination.

Author(s): 
Anandhi, C. L.
Nagaraj, V. K.
Kumar, R.
Publication Title: 
Human & Experimental Toxicology

Terminalia chebula Gertn. (Combetraceae) is an important herbal drug in Ayurvedic pharmacopea. In the present study, a 95% ethanolic extract of T. chebula (fruit) (TC extract), which was chemically characterized on the basis of chebuloside II as a marker, was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced toxicity. TC extract was found to prevent the hepatotoxicity caused by the administration of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) (in combination) in a sub-chronic mode (12 weeks).

Author(s): 
Tasduq, S. A.
Singh, K.
Satti, N. K.
Gupta, D. K.
Suri, K. A.
Johri, R. K.
Publication Title: 
Fitoterapia

Many plants are used in Ayurveda for the treatment of tuberculosis. Our aim was to examine if these plants possess any specific molecule that inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One of them, Kaempferia galanga, yielded an anti-TB molecule, ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC). By resazurin microtitre assay (REMA), EPMC was shown to inhibit M. tuberculosis H37Ra, H37Rv, drug susceptible and multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates (MIC 0.242-0.485mM). No cross resistance was observed to any standard anti-TB drugs in the MDR strains. The compound did not inhibit any prototype bacteria tested.

Author(s): 
Lakshmanan, Divya
Werngren, Jim
Jose, Leny
Suja, K. P.
Nair, Mangalam S.
Varma, R. Luxmi
Mundayoor, Sathish
Hoffner, Sven
Kumar, R. Ajay
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Following chemotaxonomic evidence, the PE and CHCl(3) extracts of the roots of the botanical Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Dang Gui) were investigated for in vitro anti-TB activity, in parallel to studying their serotonergic and GABAergic potential. The activities were confirmed to overlap chemically with the neurotropic active principles present in medium lipophilic fractions.

Author(s): 
Deng, Shixin
Wang, Yuehong
Inui, Taichi
Chen, Shao-Nong
Farnsworth, Norman R.
Cho, Sanghyun
Franzblau, Scott G.
Pauli, Guido F.
Publication Title: 
Fitoterapia

The majority of bioactive principles in a complex matrix such as natural products and botanical medicines are secondary rather than primary metabolites. In addition to being chemically diverse, the bioactivity of an ethnobotanical can comprise from one to several bioactive compounds, present in a complex mixture. Conventional discovery efforts utilize bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) to isolate individual active compounds. When applied to complex natural products, BGF is often challenged by an apparent loss of activity during fractionation, resulting in weakly active isolated compounds.

Author(s): 
Inui, Taichi
Wang, Yuehong
Pro, Samuel M.
Franzblau, Scott G.
Pauli, Guido F.

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