Aorta, Thoracic

Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Terminalia chebula has been widely used in India as a folk medicine. This study investigated the in vivo anti-hyperglycemia and anti-diabetic complication effects of the EtOAc-soluble portion of ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit (EETC) containing 29.4% chebulic acid. Rats were divided into non-diabetic, untreated diabetic and diabetic groups. Streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (BW))-induced diabetic rats were orally administered the aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg BW), high dose (500 mg/kg BW; HEETC) and low dose (100 mg/kg BW; LEETC) for 13 weeks.

Author(s): 
Kim, Ji-hoon
Hong, Chung-Oui
Koo, Yun-chang
Kim, Su-Jung
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) stimulates neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity, but the influence on endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity and vascular NO bioavailability remains unclear. We used a bioassay employing rat aortic rings to evaluate vascular NO bioavailability. HBO exposure to 2.8 atm absolute (ATA) in vitro decreased ACh relaxation.

Author(s): 
Hink, Jonas
Thom, Stephen R.
Simonsen, Ulf
Rubin, Inger
Jansen, Erik
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The age-related decline in vasorelaxation is largely due to ceramide-induced induction of phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which limits nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at stimulatory sites. We hypothesized that ceramide accumulation was from an age-related loss of endothelial glutathione (GSH) and subsequent activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), an enzyme whose activity increases when GSH is limited. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Old (30-32 mo) F344xBN rats were given (R)-alpha-lipoic acid (LA), an agent known to induce GSH synthesis.

Author(s): 
Smith, A. R.
Visioli, F.
Frei, B.
Hagen, T. M.
Publication Title: 
Lymphatic Research and Biology

BACKGROUND: Osteopathic lymphatic pump treatments (LPT) are used to treat edema, but their direct effects on lymph flow have not been studied. In the current study, we examined the effects of LPT on lymph flow in the thoracic duct of instrumented conscious dogs in the presence of edema produced by constriction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Six dogs were surgically instrumented with an ultrasonic flow transducer on the thoracic lymph duct and catheters in the descending thoracic aorta and in IVC.

Author(s): 
Prajapati, Parna
Shah, Pankhil
King, Hollis H.
Williams, Arthur G.
Desai, Pratikkumar
Downey, H. Fred
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Terminalia chebula has been widely used in India as a folk medicine. This study investigated the in vivo anti-hyperglycemia and anti-diabetic complication effects of the EtOAc-soluble portion of ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit (EETC) containing 29.4% chebulic acid. Rats were divided into non-diabetic, untreated diabetic and diabetic groups. Streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (BW))-induced diabetic rats were orally administered the aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg BW), high dose (500 mg/kg BW; HEETC) and low dose (100 mg/kg BW; LEETC) for 13 weeks.

Author(s): 
Kim, Ji-hoon
Hong, Chung-Oui
Koo, Yun-chang
Kim, Su-Jung
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Life Sciences

AIMS: Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is a commonly used dietary supplement that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the mechanisms by which LA may confer protection in models of established atherosclerosis. MAIN METHODS: Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were fed with high cholesterol chow for 6 weeks and then randomized to receive either high cholesterol diet alone or combined with LA (20mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Vascular function was analyzed by myography.

Author(s): 
Ying, Zhekang
Kherada, Nisharahmed
Farrar, Britten
Kampfrath, Thomas
Chung, Yiucho
Simonetti, Orlando
Deiuliis, Jeffrey
Desikan, Rajagopal
Khan, Bobby
Villamena, Frederick
Sun, Qinghua
Parthasarathy, Sampath
Rajagopalan, Sanjay
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Reduced caloric intake decreases arterial blood pressure in healthy individuals and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in obese and overweight individuals. The SIRT1 protein deacetylase mediates many of the effects of calorie restriction (CR) on organismal lifespan and metabolic pathways. However, the role of SIRT1 in regulating endothelium-dependent vasomotor tone is not known. Here we show that SIRT1 promotes endothelium-dependent vasodilation by targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for deacetylation.

Author(s): 
Mattagajasingh, Ilwola
Kim, Cuk-Seong
Naqvi, Asma
Yamamori, Tohru
Hoffman, Timothy A.
Jung, Saet-Byel
DeRicco, Jeremy
Kasuno, Kenji
Irani, Kaikobad
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain, which are homozygous for the cp gene (cp/cp), are obese, insulin-resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. They exhibit associated micro- and macrovascular disease and end-stage ischemic myocardial lesions and are highly stress sensitive. We subjected male cp/cp rats to pair feeding (providing the rats each day with the amount of food eaten by matched freely fed animals), a procedure that alters the diurnal feeding pattern, leading to a state of intermittent caloric restriction.

Author(s): 
Russell, James C.
Proctor, Spencer D.
Kelly, Sandra E.
Brindley, David N.
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Pharmacology

Antiproliferative effects of the Japanese-Sino medicine Shimotsu-to (a combined prescription of cnidium rhizome, angelica root, peony root and rehmannia root) were investigated in the primary culture of smooth muscle cells (SMC) of mouse aorta. Fetal bovine serum (10%)-induced proliferation of primary cultured SMC was inhibited by Shimotsu-to at 4, 20, 100 or 500 micrograms/ml. The inhibitory effect was selective on SMC and due to cnidium rhizome or angelica root.

Author(s): 
Kobayashi, S.
Mimura, Y.
Notoya, K.
Kimura, I.
Kimura, M.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are highly valued traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of PNS (120 mg/kg, once daily administrated intragastrically (i.g.)) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-cholesterol diet and chronic inflammation, which was derived through zymosan (10 mg/kg, once every 2 d) administration intraperitoneally, were evaluated in rabbits for 8 weeks. A normal group, a simple high-fat diet group, and a zymosan plus high-cholesterol diet group (Zym) were used as controls.

Author(s): 
Liu, Ya
Zhang, Hai-Gang
Jia, Yi
Li, Xiao-Hui

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