Apolipoprotein B-100

Publication Title: 
Therapeutische Umschau. Revue ThÈrapeutique

Familial forms of isolated hypercholesterolemia are inherited autosomal-dominantly and are caused by defects of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein or its ligand, the apolipoprotein B-100, the exclusive apolipoprotein moiety of the LDL particles. Mutations at the LDL receptor gene locus (more than 150 different mutations have been described up to now) lead to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH); the only mutation at the apolipoprotein B-100 gene locus described in detail so far leads to the so-called familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB).

Author(s): 
Miserez, A. R.
Keller, U.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

ACAT2, the enzyme responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins by the small intestine and liver, forms predominantly cholesteryl oleate from acyl-CoA and free cholesterol. The accumulation of cholesteryl oleate in plasma lipoproteins has been found to be predictive of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, a method was developed in which fatty acyl-CoA subspecies could be extracted from mouse liver and quantified.

Author(s): 
Bell, Thomas A.
Wilson, Martha D.
Kelley, Kathryn
Sawyer, Janet K.
Rudel, Lawrence L.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVES: The enzyme acyl-coenzymeA (CoA):cholesterol O-acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in the liver synthesizes cholesteryl esters (CE) from cholesterol and fatty acyl-CoA, which get incorporated into apoB-containing lipoproteins that are secreted into the bloodstream. Dietary fatty acid composition influences the amount and fatty acid composition of CE within apoB-containing lipoproteins.

Author(s): 
Bell, Thomas A.
Kelley, Kathryn
Wilson, Martha D.
Sawyer, Janet K.
Rudel, Lawrence L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO), which is enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 n-3), the product of Delta-6 desaturation of 18:3 n-3, will decrease plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations and result in conversion of SDA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the liver.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Ping
Boudyguina, Elena
Wilson, Martha D.
Gebre, Abraham K.
Parks, John S.
Publication Title: 
Atherosclerosis

INTRODUCTION: The anti-atherogenic and hypotriglyceridemic properties of fish oil are attributed to its enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in decreased plasma triglycerides. OBJECTIVE: We used apoB100 only, LDLrKO mice to investigate whether echium oil reduces atherosclerosis.

Author(s): 
Forrest, Lolita M.
Boudyguina, Elena
Wilson, Martha D.
Parks, John S.
Publication Title: 
Nutrients

Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs.

Author(s): 
Forrest, Lolita M.
Lough, Christopher M.
Chung, Soonkyu
Boudyguina, Elena Y.
Gebre, Abraham K.
Smith, Thomas L.
Colvin, Perry L.
Parks, John S.
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