The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Families of centenarians have high levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which may have neurological as well as cardiovascular protective effects during aging. Because plasma HDL level declines progressively with aging, we examined whether centenarians with higher plasma HDL levels have better cognitive function.
Recent studies in man and human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic animals emphasize the significance of apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoprotein in antiatherogenesis. Several drugs and other compounds, e.g. phenobarbital, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, prednisone, estrogen and alcohol, induce apolipoprotein A-I synthesis. They commonly produce serum lipoprotein patterns typical of a low risk of coronary heart disease, and many of them have been found to prevent atherogenesis, reduce coronary heart disease mortality and increase survival.
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation variation has been implicated in memory, cognitive performance, and dementia. Plasma apolipoprotein-A1 (ApoA1) levels may act as a biomarker of age-associated cognitive performance and decline. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the heritability of plasma ApoA1 protein levels; to examine DNA methylation variation within the APOA1 gene; and to investigate whether APOA1 methylation is associated with plasma ApoA1 levels and episodic memory performance.
BACKGROUND: Subfractions of HDL, particularly large HDL (HDL2), are inversely correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). alpha-Tocopherol (AT) is the main lipid-soluble antioxidant in plasma. Results of a previous small study (n = 44) suggested that either a combination of an antioxidant cocktail [800 IU/day 2R,4'R,8'R-(RRR)-AT plus 1 g vitamin C, 25 mg beta-carotene, and 100 microg selenium] or individual antioxidant vitamins combined with simvastatin-niacin (S-N) therapy attenuated the protective increase in HDL2 seen with S-N alone.
We investigated the in vivo metabolic fate of pre-beta HDL particles in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic (hA-I (Tg)) mice. Pre-beta HDL tracers were assembled by incubation of [(125)I]tyramine cellobiose-labeled apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with HEK293 cells expressing ABCA1. Radiolabeled pre-beta HDLs of increasing size (pre-beta1, -2, -3, and -4 HDLs) were isolated by fast-protein liquid chromatography and injected into hA-I (Tg)-recipient mice, after which plasma decay, in vivo remodeling, and tissue uptake were monitored.
In Tangier disease, absence of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) results in reduced plasma HDL and elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. We hypothesized that hepatocyte ABCA1 regulates VLDL TG secretion through nascent HDL production. Silencing of ABCA1 expression in oleate-stimulated rat hepatoma cells resulted in: 1) decreased large nascent HDL (>10 nm diameter) and increased small nascent HDL (<10 nm) formation, 2) increased large buoyant VLDL1 particle secretion, and 3) decreased phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.
Nutritional influences on cardiovascular disease operate throughout life. Studies in both experimental animals and humans have suggested that changes in the peri- and early post-natal nutrition can affect the development of the various components of the metabolic syndrome in adult life. This has lead to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on lipid profile in the offspring.
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue (AT) is the body's largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key cholesterol transporter for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. However, the extent to which AT ABCA1 expression contributes to HDL biogenesis in vivo is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adipocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice (ABCA1(-A/-A)) were generated by crossing ABCA1(floxed) mice with aP2Cre transgenic mice.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are inversely associated with coronary heart disease due to HDL's ability to transport excess cholesterol in arterial macrophages to the liver for excretion [i.e., reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)]. However, recent advances highlight additional atheroprotective roles for HDL beyond bulk cholesterol removal from cells through RCT.