Centenarians are people who escaped from major common diseases, including cancer, and reached the extreme limits of human life-span. The analysis of demographic data indicates that cancer incidence and mortality show a levelling off around the age of 85-90 years, and suggests that oldest old people and centenarians are protected from cancer onset and progression.
Exceptional longevity is associated with substantial heritability. The ?4 allele in apolipoprotein E and the linked G allele in rs2075650 of TOMM40 have been associated with increased mortality and the ?2 allele with decreased mortality, although inconsistently. Offspring from long-lived families and spouse controls were recruited at 3 sites in the United States and Denmark. We used generalized estimating equations to compare the likelihood of carrying risk alleles in offspring (n = 2307) and spouse controls (n = 764), adjusting for age, sex, level of education, and family membership.
Despite great interest in the role of lipids in overall and disease-free survival, virtually no information is available on the lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of persons over 90 years of age. Furthermore, the genetic underpinnings of atherosclerosis and the particular genetic factors responsible for protection against coronary artery disease remain speculative.
Human high density lipoprotein (HDL) contains at least two types of lipoprotein-containing A-I particles: one contains both apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II (Lp A-I:A-II) as main protein components, whereas in the other, apo A-II is absent (Lp A-I). The two subpopulations have different metabolisms and physiological roles. Studies indicate that apo A-II is an antagonist of cholesterol efflux. Lp A-I but not Lp A-I:A-II is increased in women compared with men. The lower apo A-I levels in patients with coronary artery disease reflect a decrease in Lp A-I.
BACKGROUND: Ultralow-fat diets are known to reduce high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the setting of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention program, relationships between exercise variables and HDL-C levels were examined to determine whether exercise moderates this dietary effect on serum lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: We performed a 3-month, prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle intervention study (< or = 10% dietary fat; aerobic exercise [180 min/wk], group support, and yoga [60 min/day]) in 120 subjects with or at risk for coronary artery disease.
BACKGROUND: Lipid abnormalities contribute significantly to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Accumulating evidence supports a proatherogenic role for remnant lipoproteins. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) in type 2 diabetic and ESRD patients with age- and gender-matched controls.
Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein that is reportedly necessary for pre beta HDL formation; however, its detailed function remains unknown. We investigated the biogenesis and properties of apoM and its effects on the initial steps of nascent pre beta HDL assembly by ABCA1 in HEK293 cells. Transiently transfected apoM was localized primarily in the endomembrane compartment.
THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation.
Plasma lipids, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels were determined in seven women and seven men with moderate obesity before, during 7 weeks of continuous weight loss (10.4% to 9.6% of body weight, 1000 kCal/day diet), and after 3 months at a stable, reduced weight. Plasma triglyceride levels decreased by 30.4% in men and by 39.4% in women (p less than 0.0001) after 1 week of caloric restriction and remained at this level throughout the study period.