Acupuncture and acupressure are often advocated and used as a means of controlling appetite and reducing body weight, supported by case-series and uncontrolled studies that show encouraging results. This paper reviews placebo/sham-controlled clinical trials published on this topic. Two independent literature searches identified four such studies. None of these is without significant methodological flaws and their results are contradictory. The two relatively rigorous trials show no effect on body weight.
Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies may increase the success rate of weight loss via a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity management. To our knowledge, no studies have summarised the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of LA, in particular with respect to its impact on anthropometric features and appetite in obese adults, by conducting a systematic review of previous clinical trials.
Per capita caloric intake in the United States has not increased significantly in the past 75 years, but energy expenditure has decreased. As a result, average body weight and prevalence of obesity have increased. Paralleling this increase in body weight has been an increase in longevity. Minor obesity, therefore, is not related to increased mortality unless the patient has an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hyperlipemia. Patients with these disorders or with a body weight in excess of 20% of the ideal will benefit most from aggressive therapy for obesity.
In developed countries, where the majority of the population has enough income to afford healthy diets, a large number of the inhabitants nevertheless choose unhealthy nutrition. WHO and FAO strategies to overcome this problem are mostly based on educational means. Implicitly, this approach is based on the presumption that the main causes of the problem are ignorance and culturally acquired bad habits.
To date, there are few known predictors of stress-induced eating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether physiological and psychological variables are related to eating after stress. Specifically, we hypothesized that high cortisol reactivity in response to stress may lead to eating after stress, given the relations between cortisol with both psychological stress and mechanisms affecting hunger. To test this, we exposed fifty-nine healthy pre-menopausal women to both a stress session and a control session on different days.
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)
Recent studies have demonstrated a role for appetite- and volume-regulating neuropeptides in alcohol dependence, particularly in association with alcohol craving. The peptides leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, vasopressin and the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been of particular interest because of their central effects on various brain circuits, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. In addition, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an important role in linking appetite regulation with the HPA axis.
Neurobiological research in alcohol dependence has led to a new understanding of this addictive disease. While some important mechanisms like alterations in the mesolimbic reward system or changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis have been well studied, other possible neurobiological mechanisms are still unrevealed.
Cachexia is among the most debilitating and life-threatening aspects of cancer, and is more common in children and elderly patients. Associated with anorexia, fat and muscle tissue wasting, psychological distress, and a lower quality of life, cachexia arises from a complex interaction between the cancer and the host. This process results from a failure of the adaptive feeding response seen in simple starvation and includes cytokine production, release of lipid-mobilizing and proteolysis-inducing factors, and alterations in intermediary metabolism.