A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105-1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned about negative psychological and behavioral sequelae of such restriction, advocates of CR continue to urge people to adopt sharply reduced eating regimes in order to increase their longevity.
Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake.
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)
Recent studies have demonstrated a role for appetite- and volume-regulating neuropeptides in alcohol dependence, particularly in association with alcohol craving. The peptides leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, vasopressin and the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been of particular interest because of their central effects on various brain circuits, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. In addition, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an important role in linking appetite regulation with the HPA axis.
OBJECTIVE: Food intake is regulated by factors that modulate caloric requirements as well as food's reinforcing properties. In this study, we measured brain glucose utilization to an olfactory stimulus (bacon scent), and we examined the role of food restriction and genetic predisposition to obesity on such brain metabolic activity. METHODS: Zucker obese (Ob) and lean (Le) rats were divided into four groups: (1) Ob ad-libitum fed, (2) Ob food restricted (70% of ad libitum), (3) Le ad-libitum fed and (4) Le food restricted.
Arquivos Brasileiros De Endocrinologia E Metabologia
Body weight excess has an increasingly high prevalence in the world. Obesity is a complex disease of multifactorial origin with a polygenic condition affected by environmental factors. Weight loss is a primary strategy to treat obesity and its morbidities. Weight changes through life depend on the interaction of environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. Interindividual variation of weight loss in response to different types of interventions (behavioral, caloric restriction, exercise, drug or surgery) has been observed.