Aptitude

Publication Title: 
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

The author describes the concept of triadic reality, which he sees as a necessary prerequisite to healthy negotiation of the oedipal phase. Without positive representations of both parents individually-and, significantly, of both parents together in relation to the child-the child is hampered in her efforts to achieve a sense of triadic reality, resulting in difficulties in self representation and in object choice, as well as a limited capacity to love. A detailed case report is presented, highlighting relevant aspects of the author's work with a patient named Marielena.

Author(s): 
Herzog, James M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality

The similarities between measures of self-evaluation and self-deception are reviewed, and a method for discriminating between them is proposed, using personality profiles and relations to ability and achievement. Across two samples, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Tafarodi's measures of self-evaluation were used to demonstrate that the RSES and Self-Liking are more similar to Self-Deceptive Enhancement than is self-competence. Further, Self-Competence is uniquely associated with cognitive ability and both academic and creative achievement.

Author(s): 
Mar, Raymond A.
DeYoung, Colin G.
Higgins, Daniel M.
Peterson, Jordan B.
Publication Title: 
Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

A unique case of artificially conceived twins is described. The infants involved are unrelated to one another, as well as to the mother who carried them. The question of whether these individuals meet scientific criteria for being twins is considered, as is the issue of whether their parents are really parents of twins. Next, the International Society for Twin Studies acknowledges the life and work of its late esteemed colleague, Dr Robert Derom.

Author(s): 
Segal, Nancy L.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey.

Author(s): 
Pokorski, Mieczyslaw
Faron-Lasyk, Aneta
Borecki, Lukasz
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Author(s): 
Coe, W. C.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Author(s): 
Diamond, M. J.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychosomatics: Official Publication of the International Psychosomatics Institute

Some theoretical researchers have hypothesized links between music and altered states of consciousness. Music can influence the induction and maintenance of hypnosis. In addition, some altered states of consciousness may stimulate the musical creativity and musical production of mankind. In this research, the relationship between music and altered states of consciousness is studied from an experimental point of view. The experiments were conducted with 30 university students divided into two groups: the Hypnosis Group and the Control Group.

Author(s): 
Biasutti, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Relations between sustained attentional and disattentional abilities and hypnotic susceptibility (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A; Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C) were examined in 38 low (0-3) and 39 highly (10-12) hypnotizable college students. Highs showed greater sustained attention on Necker cube and autokinetic movement tasks and self-reported greater absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and extremely focused attentional (Differential Attentional Processes Inventory) styles. Hypnotizability was unrelated to dichotic selective attention (A.

Author(s): 
Crawford, H. J.
Brown, A. M.
Moon, C. E.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Conceptually, hypnotizability has always been associated with the increase in suggestibility produced by hypnosis. In practice, hypnotizability is measured as suggestibility following a hypnotic induction. Our understanding of hypnosis and suggestion has been hampered by this discordance between the conceptual and operational definitions of hypnotizability. For example, despite hundreds of studies purporting to use standardized scales to assess hypnotizability, we know next to nothing about that construct, as it has been defined conceptually.

Author(s): 
Kirsch, I.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Assessment

Although hypnotizability can be conceptualized as involving component subskills, standard measures do not differentiate them from a more general unitary trait, partly because the measures include limited sets of dichotomous items. To overcome this, the authors applied full-information factor analysis, a sophisticated analytic approach for dichotomous items, to a large data set from 2 hypnotizability scales. This analysis yielded 4 subscales (Direct Motor, Motor Challenge, Perceptual-Cognitive, Posthypnotic Amnesia) that point to the building blocks of hypnotic response.

Author(s): 
Woody, Erik Z.
Barnier, Amanda J.
McConkey, Kevin M.

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