ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With an increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. In addition to the presence of abundant intra- and extra-cellular neurotoxic amyloid ? (A?) peptides, which form the amyloid plaques, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, consistent evidence indicates that the AD brain is characterized by extensive neuroinflammatory processes.
Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase is associated with various neuropathologies and may be related to epigenetic gene regulation. DNA methylation in promoter regions is typically associated with gene silencing. We found that human NT2 cells, which differentiate into neuron-like NT2-N cells, express 5-lipoxygenase and we investigated the relationship between 5-lipoxygenase expression and the methylation state of the 5-lipoxygenase core promoter.
The present study was aimed to establish the efficacy of Jeevaneeya Rasayana (JR), an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, in adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rat model with reference to mediators of inflammation. The methanolic (MJR), ethanolic (EJR), and water extracts (WJR) of JR were prepared and their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced acute model was evaluated. MJR at a dose of 25 mg/kg showed significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than EJR, WJR, and standard drug diclofenac. MJR also significantly decreased the paw edema in AIA rats.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cissus quadrangularis is an ancient medicinal plant. It is an active ingredient of one Ayurvedic formula called "Laksha Gogglu". Its stem is used in food preparation in India. Traditionally it is used to treat various diseases like asthma, indigestion, ear diseases, irregular menstruation, skin diseases, piles, fractured bones, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit cycloxygenase (COX-1), cycloxygenase (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity.
Variants of a hexanucleotide repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) gene have been associated with cardiovascular disease traits in humans, which may be due, at least in part, to differential expression of the at-risk alleles. To more fully characterize these variants, we carried out gene expression and DNA methylation studies in primary leukocytes from healthy individuals carrying various 5-LO promoter alleles.
Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure.
The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20-59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study.
Cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) overproduction is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), but its mechanism is poorly understood. Because adherent platelets can convert the leukocyte-derived precursor leukotriene (LT)A(4) to LTC(4), the parent cysLT, through the terminal enzyme LTC(4) synthase, we investigated the contribution of platelet-dependent transcellular cysLT production in AERD.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants that are common in people of African ancestry are associated with a differential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk that may be ameliorated by intake of (n-3) PUFA, such as EPA or DHA. We conducted a double-masked, placebo (PL)-controlled trial of fish oil (FO) supplements to determine if changes in erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA composition, heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations are modified by genotype. Participants received 5 g/d FO (2 g EPA, 1 g DHA) or 5 g/d corn/soy oil (PL).