Arcuate Nucleus

Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations.

Author(s): 
Minor, Robin K.
Chang, Joy W.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Marx, Jean
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations.

Author(s): 
Minor, Robin K.
Chang, Joy W.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal.

Author(s): 
Stengel, Andreas
Goebel, Miriam
Million, Mulugeta
Stenzel-Poore, Mary P.
Kobelt, Peter
Mönnikes, Hubert
Taché, Yvette
Wang, Lixin
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

We previously demonstrated that insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) KO mice develop diabetes associated with hepatic insulin resistance, lack of compensatory beta cell hyperplasia, and leptin resistance. To more precisely determine the roles of Irs2 in beta cells and the hypothalamus, we generated beta cell-specific Irs2 KO and hypothalamus-specific Irs2 knockdown (betaHT-IRS2) mice. Expression of Irs2 mRNA was reduced by approximately 90% in pancreatic islets and was markedly reduced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

Author(s): 
Kubota, Naoto
Terauchi, Yasuo
Tobe, Kazuyuki
Yano, Wataru
Suzuki, Ryo
Ueki, Kohjiro
Takamoto, Iseki
Satoh, Hidemi
Maki, Toshiyuki
Kubota, Tetsuya
Moroi, Masao
Okada-Iwabu, Miki
Ezaki, Osamu
Nagai, Ryozo
Ueta, Yoichi
Kadowaki, Takashi
Noda, Tetsuo
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations.

Author(s): 
Minor, Robin K.
Chang, Joy W.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide implicated in both metabolic and reproductive regulation, raising the possibility that CART plays a role in reproductive inhibition during negative metabolic conditions. The current study characterized CART's regulatory influence on GnRH and kisspeptin (Kiss1) cells and determined the sensitivity of different CART populations to negative energy balance.

Author(s): 
True, Cadence
Verma, Saurabh
Grove, Kevin L.
Smith, M. Susan
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Author(s): 
Pan, J. C.
Zhang, Z. D.
Yu, L. P.
Wu, A. J.
Ding, M.
Jin, G. Z.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We have shown that the modulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the blood pressure (BP) response induced by visceral organ stimulation is related to inhibition of cardiovascular neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) through a mechanism that involves opioids. This effect is long lasting and may involve a long-loop neural supraspinal pathway, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is an important site of opioid neurotransmitter synthesis.

Author(s): 
Li, Peng
Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Electroacupuncture (EA) at the Neiguan-Jianshi acupoints (P5-P6, overlying the median nerve) attenuates sympathoexcitatory reflexes probably through the opioid system. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) within hypothalamus is an important brain area that produces opioid peptides. Physiological studies have demonstrated that the predominant response to EA is excitation in the ARC and that excitatory projections from the ARC to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray during EA at P5-P6 contribute to inhibition of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflexes.

Author(s): 
Guo, Zhi-Ling
Longhurst, John C.

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