Area Under Curve

Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula (fructus chebulae) is an important Traditional Medicine used for intestinal and hepatic detoxification. Gurigumu-7 which is made of fructus chebulae and 6 other traditional medicines is one of the most frequently used compound Mongolian and Tibet medicines for liver diseases. Terminalia phenolics are considered as the bioactive constituents of fructus chebulae and consequently of Gurigumu-7.

Author(s): 
Gao, Jie
Ajala, Olusegun S.
Wang, Chun-Ying
Xu, Hai-Yan
Yao, Jia-Huan
Zhang, Hai-Peng
Jukov, Azzaya
Ma, Chao-Mei
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Calorie restriction (CR) slows aging and is thought to improve insulin sensitivity in laboratory animals. In contrast, decreased insulin signaling and/or mild insulin resistance paradoxically extends maximal lifespan in various genetic animal models of longevity. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR on glucose tolerance and insulin action in lean healthy humans.

Author(s): 
Fontana, Luigi
Klein, Samuel
Holloszy, John O.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising caregivers for dementia partners (n=14) and age- and BMI-matched non-caregivers provided home sampling of cortisol-saliva samples at waking, 30 min after waking, and bedtime, and a 12-hour overnight urine collection.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
O'Donovan, Aoife
Lin, Jue
Puterman, Eli
Lazaro, Alanie
Chan, Jessica
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.
Wolkowitz, Owen
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising caregivers for dementia partners (n=14) and age- and BMI-matched non-caregivers provided home sampling of cortisol-saliva samples at waking, 30 min after waking, and bedtime, and a 12-hour overnight urine collection.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
O'Donovan, Aoife
Lin, Jue
Puterman, Eli
Lazaro, Alanie
Chan, Jessica
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.
Wolkowitz, Owen
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Obesity Research

OBJECTIVE: A previous study in our laboratory (Moyer et al., Obes Res. 1994;2:255-62 found that, in response to uncontrollable laboratory stress, women with a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) had higher cortisol reactivity, poorer coping skills, and lower anger responses than women with low WHR. We aimed to compare high WHR men's stress responses to these women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The current study examined cortisol reactivity and psychological data of 27 healthy high WHR men exposed to the same laboratory challenges as the women from our previous study.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. E.
Moyer, A. E.
Martin, C. D.
Macary, S.
Cummings, N.
Rodin, J.
Rebuffe-Scrive, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

BACKGROUND: The methylation status of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 in newborns has been reported to be sensitive to prenatal maternal mood. This study investigates both the association between maternal cortisol and emotional state during pregnancy and the methylation state of the promoter region of NR3C1 gene. METHODS: We examined 83 pregnant women. Psychological data and diurnal cortisol data were assessed to evaluate maternal stress once each trimester.

Author(s): 
Hompes, Titia
Izzi, Benedetta
Gellens, Edith
Morreels, Maarten
Fieuws, Steffen
Pexsters, Anne
Schops, Ganel
Dom, Myriam
Van Bree, Rieta
Freson, Kathleen
Verhaeghe, Johan
Spitz, Bernard
Demyttenaere, Koen
Glover, Vivette
Van den Bergh, Bea
Allegaert, Karel
Claes, Stephan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

This study was undertaken to assess the bioequivalence between a new formulation of propofol 2% and the commercially available product Diprivan. Secondary objectives were to compare the times to onset of and emergence from hypnosis, the hemodynamic effects, and the safety profiles. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included in a randomized crossover study. Subjects were administered a 2-mg/kg single bolus injection of each formulation separated by a 7- to 10-day washout period. Plasma propofol was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

Author(s): 
Abad-Santos, Francisco
Gálvez-Múgica, M. Angeles
Santos, M. Angeles
Novalbos, Jesús
Gallego-Sandín, Sonia
Méndez, Paloma
Casimiro, Cesar
Gilsanz, Fernando
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: Automatic control of depth of hypnosis using the Bispectral Index (BIS) can help to reduce phases of inadequate control. Automated BIS control with propofol or isoflurane administration via an infusion system has recently been described, a comparable study with isoflurane administration via a vaporizer had not been conducted yet. Our hypothesis was that our new model based closed-loop control system can safely be applied clinically and maintains the BIS within a defined target range better than manual control.

Author(s): 
Locher, Stephan
Stadler, Konrad S.
Boehlen, Thomas
Bouillon, Thomas
Leibundgut, Daniel
Schumacher, Peter M.
Wymann, Rolf
Zbinden, Alex M.
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

This study investigated the effect of Danshen on the pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic (PD-PK) effects of midazolam, a model CYP3A probe substrate. The effects of acute and 3-day Danshen treatment on the pharmacokinetics of a low dose midazolam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were determined in vivo in the rat. Danshen (200 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment decreased midazolam clearance by 16%, with increases in the AUC by 22% and the half-life by 14%. 3-Day Danshen treatment (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 3 days decreased the clearance, with increases in the T(1/2) and AUC.

Author(s): 
Wang, Xin
Lee, Wayne Y. W.
Zhou, Xuelin
Or, Penelope M. Y.
Yeung, John H. K.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each drug. Measurement of artemisinin concentrations was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

Author(s): 
Dien, T. K.
de Vries, P. J.
Khanh, N. X.
Koopmans, R.
Binh, L. N.
Duc, D. D.
Kager, P. A.
van Boxtel, C. J.

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