BACKGROUND: Moxibustion is a traditional East Asian medical therapy that uses the heat generated by burning herbal preparations containing Artemisia vulgaris to stimulate acupuncture points. The aim of this review was to evaluate previously published clinical evidence for the use of moxibustion as a treatment for hypertension. METHODS: We searched 15 databases without language restrictions from their respective dates of inception until March 2010. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing moxibustion to either antihypertensive drugs or no treatment.
Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
AIMS: To analyse the cost effectiveness of using the moxibustion technique to correct non-vertex presentation and to reduce the number of caesarean sections performed at term. METHOD: A deterministic model of decision analysis has been developed to analyse the cost of treatment in which heat is applied by moxibustion (the combustion of Artemisia vulgaris) at acupuncture point BL67 for pregnant women with non-vertex fetal position at 33-35?weeks' gestation. This approach was compared with conventional treatment recommendations based on the knee-chest posture technique.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aqueous extract from aerial parts of Artemisia copa Phil. (Asteraceae) administered orallyfor its psychopharmacological activities in several experimental models. METHODS: The extract was administered p.o. in Swiss albino mice and tested on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, locomotor activity, exploration in the hole-board, anxiolytic like profile evaluated in the marble-burying test and anticonvulsant activity on convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol.
AIM: To investigate the effects of artemisinin (Art) on the action potentials (AP) recorded from identified C-type nodose neurons and study its anti-arrhythmic and anesthetic mechanisms. METHODS: Neonatal and adult rats were selected for the preparation of isolated nodose ganglia neurons (NGN) and nodose ganglion-vagus slice preparation. Somatic AP were recorded from both isolated and slice NGN using whole-cell patch technique. Conduction velocity (CV) was measured using slice preparation. The effects of Art on AP were evaluated with the reference to ketamine.
BACKGROUND: The borders of Thailand harbour the world's most multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 1984 mefloquine was introduced as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but substantial resistance developed within 6 years. A combination of artesunate with mefloquine now cures more than 95% of acute infections. For both treatment regimens, the underlying mechanisms of resistance are not known.
Artemisinin, qinghaosu, was extracted from the traditional Chinese medical drug qinghao (the blue-green herb) in the early 1970s. Its 'discovery' can thus be hailed as an achievement of research groups who were paradoxically successful, working as they were at the height of a political mass movement in communist China, known in the West as the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), a period that was marked by chaos, cruelty and enormous suffering, particularly, but by no means only, among the intelligentsia.
Artemisinin and its derivatives are currently recommended as first-line antimalarials in regions where Plasmodium falciparum is resistant to traditional drugs. The cytotoxic activity of these endoperoxides toward rapidly dividing human carcinoma cells and cell lines has been reported, and it is hypothesized that activation of the endoperoxide bridge by an iron(II) species, to form C-centered radicals, is essential for cytotoxicity.
BACKGROUND: Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.
The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG-DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years) and 107 children (median age 38 months) with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Artemisinins are derived from extracts of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are well established for the treatment of malaria, including highly drug-resistant strains. Their efficacy also extends to phylogenetically unrelated parasitic infections such as schistosomiasis. More recently, they have also shown potent and broad anticancer properties in cell lines and animal models. In this review, we discuss recent advances in defining the role of artemisinins in medicine, with particular focus on their controversial mechanisms of action.