BACKGROUND: A variety of therapeutic interventions is available for restoring motion and diminishing pain in patients with frozen shoulder. An overview article concerning the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat the frozen shoulder. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Pedro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomised clinical trials (RCTs).
This study presents a new method for measuring axial rotation of vertebra. Anatomical landmarks of the vertebral body were first recognized in X-ray film. By employing appropriate geometrical relationships, vertebral body shape parameters and a computer iteration method, the rotation angle of vertebra on the transverse plane can rapidly be obtained. A cadaver lumbar spine axial rotation-fixation device was designed to confirm the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Rotation angles on CT images were adopted as the golden standard and compared with analytical results based on X-ray films.
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)
BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder is condition in which movement of the shoulder becomes restricted. It can be described as either primary (idiopathic) whereby the aetiology is unknown, or secondary, when it can be attributed to another cause. It is commonly a self-limiting condition, of approximately 1 to 3 years' duration, though incomplete resolution can occur. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for primary frozen shoulder, identify the most appropriate intervention by stage of condition and highlight any gaps in the evidence.