Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls.
Colors associated with different love attitudes were examined using the Hendrick and Hendrick Love Attitudes Scale for six love styles. 143 college students rated the extent to which each love style reminded them of 12 colors. As expected, Lee's representation of the love-color analogy was not supported. Each love attitude was associated with relatively distinct colors.
Simple distributed strategies that modify the behavior of selfish individuals in a manner that enhances cooperation or global efficiency have proved difficult to identify. We consider a network of selfish agents who each optimize their individual utilities by coordinating (or anticoordinating) with their neighbors, to maximize the payoffs from randomly weighted pairwise games.
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to valence changes of initially neutral stimuli (CSs) through repeated pairings with positive or negative stimuli (USs). The current study is about the moderating role of qualifiers that specify the CS-US relation during these pairings. We show successful EC with pictures of men (CSs) and of liked/disliked animals or landscapes (USs). More importantly, the same pairings resulted in standard and reversed EC effects depending on semantic qualifier of the CS-US relation.
Any decision that is based upon personal preferences utilizes subjective values; however, for objectively equivalent items, whether romantic love modulates subjective value as well as the neural mechanism of this process remains unknown. In this functional MRI study, 30 items with equivalent value were first selected and assigned into three groups, and participants were trained to associate each group of items with their lover, a familiar person, or an unfamiliar person.
Conditioning of fear reactions to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) involves CS transmission to the amygdala from the auditory thalamus, the auditory cortex, or both. This article presents a simple neural network model of this neural system. The model consists of modules of mutually inhibitory nonlinear units representing the different relevant anatomical structures of the thalamo-amygdala and thalamo-corticoamygdala circuitry.
The acquisition of fear of heights in an undergraduate student sample was investigated. Height-fearful (n = 50) and non-fearful (n = 50) groups were formed on the basis of extreme scores to the heights item on the FSS-III (Wolpe & Lang, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2, 27-30, 1964).
We present a new theory of hypnotic involuntariness based on an integration and extension of recent social and cognitive theories on the automaticity of mundane, intentional behavior. According to this model, experiences of volition and involuntariness-in and out of hypnosis-are constructions or interpretations made possible by the high degree of automaticity that is a characteristic of all complex behavior, including novel behavior. Suggested nonvolitional behaviors are intentional acts that are triggered automatically by situational cues (suggestions) and cue-related sensations.
This study examined the fundamental question, whether verbal memory processing in hypnosis and in the waking state is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Seven right-handed volunteers (25.4 years, sd 3.1) with high-hypnotic susceptibility scores were PET-scanned while encoding/retrieving word associations either in hypnosis or in the waking state. Word-pairs were visually presented and highly imaginable, but not semantically related (e.g. monkey-street). The presentation of pseudo-words served as a reference condition.
We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C.