Atherosclerosis

Publication Title: 
Aging

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to progression of atherosclerosis, at least in part by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation. The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in extension of lifespan. In the vasculature,SIRT1 gain-of-function using SIRT1 overexpression or activation has been shown to improve endothelial function in mice and rats via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). However, the effects of SIRT1 loss-of-function on the endothelium in atherosclerosis remain to be characterized.

Author(s): 
Stein, Sokrates
Sch‰fer, Nicola
Breitenstein, Alexander
Besler, Christian
Winnik, Stephan
Lohmann, Christine
Heinrich, Kathrin
Brokopp, Chad E.
Handschin, Christoph
Landmesser, Ulf
Tanner, Felix C.
L¸scher, Thomas F.
Matter, Christian M.
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. RESULTS: Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival.

Author(s): 
Luoma, Pauli V.
Publication Title: 
Endocrine

Obesity promotes the development of several major cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, excess adiposity may play a direct role in initiating atherosclerosis as fat cells are capable of affecting the systemic vasculature through a variety of mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate that obesity per se may impair vascular endothelial function. This is important as endothelial dysfunction is a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and in triggering acute ischemic events.

Author(s): 
Brook, Robert D.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies on mice and rats have demonstrated that calorie restriction (CR) slows primary aging, has a protective effect against secondary aging, and markedly decreases the incidence of malignancies. However, the only way to determine whether CR "works" in humans is to conduct studies on people. Such studies are difficult to perform in free-living people. While research on CR in humans is still at an early stage, a modest amount of information has accumulated.

Author(s): 
Holloszy, John O.
Fontana, Luigi
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

Age-related disease, not aging per se, causes most morbidity in older humans. Here we report that skeletal muscle respiratory uncoupling due to UCP1 expression diminishes age-related disease in three mouse models. In a longevity study, median survival was increased in UCP mice (animals with skeletal muscle-specific UCP1 expression), and lymphoma was detected less frequently in UCP female mice. In apoE null mice, a vascular disease model, diet-induced atherosclerosis was decreased in UCP animals.

Author(s): 
Gates, Allison C.
Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos
Chinault, Sharon L.
Feng, Chu
Schneider, Jochen G.
Coleman, Trey
Malone, James P.
Townsend, R. Reid
Chakravarthy, Manu V.
Semenkovich, Clay F.
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. RESULTS: Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival.

Author(s): 
Luoma, Pauli V.
Publication Title: 
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytophenol. It is found in many plants, but the highest concentration was detected in different grape-derived products, especially in red wine. The substance is also an active ingredient of some over-the-counter diet supplements. High resveratrol popularity is a consequence of wide biological properties. Numbers of epidemiological and experimental studies have proved a complex chemiopreventive activity of resveratrol against various cardio-vascular disorders and cancer.

Author(s): 
Fraczek, Ma?gorzata
Szumi?o, Justyna
Podlodowska, Justyna
Burdan, Franciszek
Publication Title: 
Scientific American
Author(s): 
Pringle, Heather
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Retrospective assessments of negative mood have predicted coronary artery disease development and progression. Using momentary assessment, we evaluated associations between average positive and negative mood states and diurnal mood patterns, with prevalent and incident coronary artery calcification (CAC), a measure of calcified atherosclerosis.

Author(s): 
Kroenke, Candyce H.
Seeman, Teresa
Matthews, Karen
Adler, Nancy
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating illness with no known cure. Nowadays accumulating evidence suggested that the vascular endothelium and chronic hypoperfusion may play important role in pathobiology of AD. The vascular endothelium which regulates the passage of macromolecules and circulating cells from blood to tissue, is a major target of oxidative stress, playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases.

Author(s): 
Leszek, Jerzy
Sochocka, Marta
G?siorowski, Kazimierz

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