Tendinopathy in the region of the knee joint is a common pathological disorder. People active in sports, in particular, have a high probability of suffering from tendinopathy. Despite its high clinical relevance, the level of evidence of therapy options for tendinopathy in the knee region differs greatly. This review gives an overview of current evidence levels for therapy options in tendinopathy of the quadriceps, patellar and pes anserinus insertion tendons as well as of the distal iliotibial tract tendon.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
This consensus statement summarizes key contemporary research themes relevant to understanding the psychology and socioculture of sport injury. Special consideration is given toward high-intensity sport in which elite athlete training and performance efforts are characterized by explosive physical speed and strength, mental fortitude to push physical limits, and maximum effort and commitment to highly challenging goals associated with achieving exceptional performance.
The author, an experienced alpine mountaineer, sustained several traumatic climbing injuries over a two-year period. This article describes her multiple uses of self-hypnosis to deal with several challenges related to her returning to successful mountain climbing. She used self-hypnosis for physical healing and to enhance her motivation to resume climbing. While training for her next expedition, she successfully utilized self-hypnotic techniques to deal with acute stress and later post-traumatic symptoms that had emerged related to her climbing injuries.
A model for the use of clinical hypnosis with a Little League population was proposed and outlined with dual emphasis: performance enhancement and resolving traumatic experiences. The Performance Enhancement Training Model was developed to enhance performance with this non-patient population. It employed clinical hypnosis to bring to fruition recommendations made by coaches to enhance players' batting proficiency.
Rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) is a well-documented but uncommon clinical condition. It is usually a self-limiting condition but can present as a life-threatening emergency. RSH after non-contact vigorous exercise is unknown. Two such cases secondary to yoga and laughter therapy sessions, respectively, are reported. One of them required surgical intervention, whereas the other was successfully treated conservatively.
Foot and ankle injuries are extremely common among athletes and other physically active individuals. Rehabilitation programs that emphasize the use of therapeutic exercise to restore joint range of motion, muscle strength, neuromuscular coordination, and gait mechanics have been shown to have clinical success for patients suffering various foot and ankle pathologies. Rehabilitation programs are discussed for ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and turf toe.
The use of cold therapy in acute sports injuries as well as in the rehabilitation of the injured athlete has become a generally accepted treatment method. Various cooling modalities are used to apply cold to the injured area, e.g. ice packs, ice towels, ice massage, frozen gel packs, ethyl chloride and other vapocoolants, chemical reaction devices and inflatable splints using refrigerant gas. Most clinical studies report that the use of cryotherapy has a positive effect on pain reduction and on the recovery of various injuries.
Hip and pelvic injuries are relatively rare in the young athlete. Contusions and musculotendinous sprains are the most common injuries about the hip and pelvis. Apophyseal avulsion fractures and stress fractures are the most frequently encountered skeletal injuries. Each of these entities can be successfully treated with guided physical therapy following conservative management with rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and ice massage until the patient is pain free. Epiphyseal, diaphyseal, or pathologic fractures are rare entities that are secondary to violent trauma.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
The use of cryotherapy, i.e. the application of cold for the treatment of injury or disease, is widespread in sports medicine today. It is an established method when treating acute soft tissue injuries, but there is a discrepancy between the scientific basis for cryotherapy and clinical studies. Various methods such as ice packs, ice towels, ice massage, gel packs, refrigerant gases and inflatable splints can be used. Cold is also used to reduce the recovery time as part of the rehabilitation programme both after acute injuries and in the treatment of chronic injuries.
Rehabilitation of foot and ankle injuries is essential for full functional recovery and prevention of chronic disease. Rehabilitation includes the usage of physical therapy modalities and rehabilitative exercise whose goals are the reduction of pain and edema and the increase of strength and proprioception. Physical therapy modalities may be classified as thermal, mechanical or electrical agents and include the use of ice, heat, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, intermittent compression, therapeutic massage and a variety of electrical currents.