Alteration of lipid metabolism is commonly observed in sex hormone-dependent cancer cells, yet its mechanistic involvement in cancer cell proliferation and progression is unclear. We have found that the expression of the cholesterol transporter, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), was 15- to 20-fold higher in androgen-dependent than in androgen-independent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, indicating a possible relationship between the expression levels of ABCA1 and prostate cancer progression.
Since trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr(3+)as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr(3+) may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol.
Macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out (Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M)) mice were generated to determine the role of macrophage ABCA1 expression in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the innate immune response of macrophages. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in chow-fed Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable.
We investigated the in vivo metabolic fate of pre-beta HDL particles in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic (hA-I (Tg)) mice. Pre-beta HDL tracers were assembled by incubation of [(125)I]tyramine cellobiose-labeled apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with HEK293 cells expressing ABCA1. Radiolabeled pre-beta HDLs of increasing size (pre-beta1, -2, -3, and -4 HDLs) were isolated by fast-protein liquid chromatography and injected into hA-I (Tg)-recipient mice, after which plasma decay, in vivo remodeling, and tissue uptake were monitored.
Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein that is reportedly necessary for pre beta HDL formation; however, its detailed function remains unknown. We investigated the biogenesis and properties of apoM and its effects on the initial steps of nascent pre beta HDL assembly by ABCA1 in HEK293 cells. Transiently transfected apoM was localized primarily in the endomembrane compartment.
Loss of ABCA1 activity in Tangier disease (TD) is associated with abnormal apoB lipoprotein (Lp) metabolism in addition to the complete absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We used hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knock-out (HSKO) mice to test the hypothesis that hepatic ABCA1 plays dual roles in regulating Lp metabolism and nascent HDL formation. HSKO mice recapitulated the TD lipid phenotype with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, markedly decreased LDL, and near absence of HDL.
In Tangier disease, absence of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) results in reduced plasma HDL and elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. We hypothesized that hepatocyte ABCA1 regulates VLDL TG secretion through nascent HDL production. Silencing of ABCA1 expression in oleate-stimulated rat hepatoma cells resulted in: 1) decreased large nascent HDL (>10 nm diameter) and increased small nascent HDL (<10 nm) formation, 2) increased large buoyant VLDL1 particle secretion, and 3) decreased phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation.
We previously showed that macrophages from macrophage-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) knockout (Abca1(-M/-M)) mice had an enhanced proinflammatory response to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct association between free cholesterol (FC), lipid raft content, and hyper-responsiveness of macrophages to LPS in WT mice. Abca1(-M/-M) macrophages were also hyper-responsive to specific agonists to TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9, but not TLR3, compared with WT macrophages.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.
Ample evidence indicates that dietary fatty acids alter the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of fatty acids still remain elusive. Recent advances in our understanding of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) function and regulation have provided a valuable insight into the mechanisms by which fatty acids may affect plasma HDL-C levels. ABCA1 mediates the assembly of phospholipids and free cholesterol with apolipoprotein A-I, which is a critical step for HDL biogenesis.