Atropine

Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).

Author(s): 
Tamhane, M. D.
Thorat, S. P.
Rege, N. N.
Dahanukar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
Zeitschrift Für Die Gesamte Innere Medizin Und Ihre Grenzgebiete
Author(s): 
Schneider, G.
Publication Title: 
Der Urologe
Author(s): 
Diesing, U.
Publication Title: 
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Author(s): 
Lal, H.
Shah, H. C.
Publication Title: 
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
Author(s): 
Tsujimoto, A.
Doi, T.
Ikeda, M.
Nishikawa, T.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica

A simplified, safe and flexible technique of anesthesia, based on a limited number of relatively cheap drugs, and allowing ventilation with air, was applied to 60 patients undergoing operations of at least 60 minutes' duration. The required depth of hypnosis was produced by intravenous diazepam or gamma-OH, whilst droperidol and fentanyl provided a satisfactory degree of sedation and analgesia. Pancuronium bromide was used for muscle relaxation. Spontaneous respiration was resumed immediately after postoperative use of nalorphine and neostigmine.

Author(s): 
Lelkens, J. P.
Publication Title: 
Lancet (London, England)
Author(s): 
Sutherland, R. J.
Knox, J.
Publication Title: 
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology

Hippocampal and neocortical EEG was studied in spontaneously immobile rabbits and in immobilized rabbits, "animal hypnosis.' Neocortical low voltage fast activity (LVFA) and hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) occurred spontaneously and were elicited by sensory stimulation, eserine and brain stimulation in normally immobile and hypnotized animals. Atropine sulfate blocked the LVFA and RSA that occurred during spontaneous immobility and hypnosis but not the LVFA and RSA that occurred during movement.

Author(s): 
Whishaw, I. Q.
Flannigan, K. P.
Schallert, T.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research Bulletin

We previously found that the center from which animal hypnosis is controlled in the rabbit is located in the area that includes the brachium conjunctivum and locus coeruleus (LC-BC) of the brainstem. Microinjection was used to investigate functions of cholinergic fibers in this area in relation to animal hypnosis. The duration of animal hypnosis (DAH) induced by inversion was diminished to about 60% of the controls by microinjecting atropine into the LC-BC, whereas microinjection of carbachol prolonged the DAH to 3.5 times that of the controls.

Author(s): 
Fujishita, M.
Hisamitsu, T.
Takeshige, C.
Publication Title: 
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters

Two new GABA derivatives, 1 and 2, were synthesized and tested for their capacity to display CNS activity, which was assessed by determining the effects on the duration of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in rats. Compound 1, peripherally injected, significantly prolonged the hypnosis time, a typical GABA-mimetic effect, while both intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of compound 2 surprisingly shortened the hypnotic effect in an atropine-sensitive way. The study was extended also to compounds 1a, 1b and 2a, putative oxidative/hydrolytic metabolites of 1 and 2.

Author(s): 
Carelli, Vincenzo
Liberatore, Felice
Scipione, Luigi
Giorgioni, Gianfabio
Di Stefano, Antonio
Impicciatore, Mariannina
Ballabeni, Vigilio
Calcina, Francesco
Magnanini, Francesca
Barocelli, Elisabetta

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