Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary according to the diagnostic criteria used and the population sampled. DSM-IV prevalence estimates among school children in the US are 3-5%, but other estimates vary from 1.7% to 16.0%. No objective test exists to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD, which remains a clinical diagnosis. Other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD.

Author(s): 
Keen, Daphne
Hadijikoumi, Irene
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary according to the diagnostic criteria used and the population sampled. DSM-IV prevalence estimates among school children in the US are 3% to 5%, but other estimates vary from 1.7% to 16.0%. No objective test exists to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD, which remains a clinical diagnosis. Other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD.

Author(s): 
Keen, Daphne
Hadijikoumi, Irene
Publication Title: 
Psychiatry Research

The goal of the present study was to investigate parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent-of-origin effects in ADHD may be due to differences in the relative quantity of risk factors transmitted by each parent. Alternatively, parent-of-origin effects may be produced by qualitative differences in the risks transmitted, such as those carried on the sex chromosomes or regulated by genomic imprinting.

Author(s): 
Goos, Lisa M.
Ezzatian, Payam
Schachar, Russell
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

This paper reviews publications on developmental trajectories of disruptive behaviour (DB) problems (aggression, opposition-defiance, rule breaking, and stealing-vandalism) over the past decade. Prior to these studies two theoretical models had strongly influenced research on DB: social learning and disease onset. According to these developmental perspectives, children learn DB from their environment and onset of the disease is triggered by accumulated exposition to disruptive models in the environment, including the media.

Author(s): 
Tremblay, Richard E.
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Stress, particularly when experienced early in life, can have profound implications for mental health. Previous research covering various tissues such as the brain, suggests that the detrimental impact of early-life stress (ELS) on mental health is mediated via epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene--stand out as key targets for ELS.

Author(s): 
Radtke, K. M.
Schauer, M.
Gunter, H. M.
Ruf-Leuschner, M.
Sill, J.
Meyer, A.
Elbert, T.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

This study examined the differential developmental significance of multiple domains of peer reputation in childhood for current and future competence and symptoms. Participants were 205 children from a normative school cohort who completed assessments in grades 3-6 and then again 10 years later. Through re-analysis of original data from the Revised Class Play (RCP; N=612), new narrow-band subscales were examined as distinct correlates and predictors of competence in age-relevant developmental tasks and psychological well being as indexed by internalizing symptoms.

Author(s): 
Gest, Scott D.
Sesma, Arturo
Masten, Ann S.
Tellegen, Auke
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

BACKGROUND: A propensity to attend to other people's emotions is a necessary condition for human empathy. AIMS: To test our hypothesis that psychopathic disorder begins as a failure to attend to the eyes of attachment figures, using a `love' scenario in young children. METHOD: Children with oppositional defiant disorder, assessed for callous-unemotional traits, and a control group were observed in a love interaction with mothers. Eye contact and affection were measured for each dyad. RESULTS: There was no group difference in affection and eye contact expressed by the mothers.

Author(s): 
Dadds, Mark R.
Allen, Jennifer L.
Oliver, Bonamy R.
Faulkner, Nathan
Legge, Katherine
Moul, Caroline
Woolgar, Matthew
Scott, Stephen
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

Psychopathy is not included in either of the main classification systems (ICD-10 or DSM-IV). Research has now extended the concept of psychopathy to childhood and has produced evidence that it is meaningfully distinct from antisocial behaviour. It is proposed that psychopathy should be accepted as a meaningful diagnosis in childhood.

Author(s): 
Rutter, Michael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesised that the early development of psychopathy is associated with a failure to attend to the eyes of attachment figures, and we have presented preliminary data from a parent-child 'love' scenario in support of this. Here, we confirm the association in a larger sample and test mechanisms of impaired eye contact during expressions of love in control and behaviourally disturbed children.

Author(s): 
Dadds, Mark R.
Allen, Jennifer L.
McGregor, Kimberley
Woolgar, Matthew
Viding, Essi
Scott, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

There is increasing evidence that callous-unemotional (CU) traits delineate a distinctive group of youth with antisocial behavior (AB). While controversies surrounding the construct of CU traits remain, the Dadds et al. (2014) study in this issue is emblematic of recent research that has focused on understanding the development of CU traits among antisocial youth.

Author(s): 
Hyde, Luke W.
Waller, Rebecca
Burt, S. Alexandra

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