autism

Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. METHODS: PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus were searched using terms for ASD and mind-body therapies.

Author(s): 
Hourston, Sarah
Atchley, Rachel
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. METHODS: PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus were searched using terms for ASD and mind-body therapies.

Author(s): 
Hourston, Sarah
Atchley, Rachel
Publication Title: 
Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan Xue Bao

The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences, in joint with genetic landscapes. The nature vs. nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain. The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade. Moreover, the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders.

Author(s): 
Lv, Jingwen
Xin, Yongjuan
Zhou, Wenhao
Qiu, Zilong
Publication Title: 
ACS chemical neuroscience

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited disorder that results in intellectual disability and a characteristic behavioral profile that includes autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sensory hypersensitivity, hyperarousal, and anxiety. The epigenetic silencing of FMR1 and the consequent absence of its protein product, FMRP, is the most common cause of fragile X.

Author(s): 
Liu, Zhonghua
Smith, Carolyn Beebe
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the life cycle. For these reasons the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress.

Author(s): 
Davis, Elysia Poggi
Pfaff, Donald
Publication Title: 
International Review of Neurobiology

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social interactions, language deficits, as well as restrictive or repetitive behaviors. ASD is clinically heterogeneous with a complex etiopathogenesis which may be conceptualized as a dynamic interplay between heterogeneous environmental cues and predisposing genetic factors involving complex epigenetic mechanisms. Inherited and de novo copy number variants provide novel information regarding genes contributing to ASD.

Author(s): 
Zhubi, Adrian
Cook, Edwin H.
Guidotti, Alessandro
Grayson, Dennis R.
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

The growing list of mutations implicated in monogenic disorders of the developing brain includes at least seven genes (ARX, CUL4B, KDM5A, KDM5C, KMT2A, KMT2C, KMT2D) with loss-of-function mutations affecting proper regulation of histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, a chromatin mark which on a genome-wide scale is broadly associated with active gene expression, with its mono-, di- and trimethylated forms differentially enriched at promoter and enhancer and other regulatory sequences.

Author(s): 
Shen, Erica
Shulha, Hennady
Weng, Zhiping
Akbarian, Schahram
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

BACKGROUND AND SCOPE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined by a wide variety of behavioural phenotypes, psychopathology and clinically informed categorical classifications. Diagnostic entities include intellectual disability (ID), the autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aetiopathogenesis of these conditions and disorders involves an interaction between both genetic and environmental risk factors on the developmental trajectory.

Author(s): 
Kiser, Dominik P.
Rivero, Olga
Lesch, Klaus-Peter
Publication Title: 
Epigenomics

The examination of potential roles of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases have become an essential alternative in recent years as genetic studies alone are yet to uncover major gene(s) for psychosis. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge from the gene-specific and genome-wide studies of postmortem brain and blood cells indicating that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and dysregulation of micro-RNAs are linked to the pathogenesis of mental diseases.

Author(s): 
Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi
Zhou, Jin-Rong
Thiagalingam, Sam
Publication Title: 
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery

INTRODUCTION: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are common and severely debilitating. Their chronic nature and reliance on both genetic and environmental factors makes studying NDDs and their treatment a challenging task. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors discuss the neurobiological mechanisms of NDDs, and present recommendations on their translational research and therapy, outlined by the International Stress and Behavior Society. Various drugs currently prescribed to treat NDDs also represent a highly diverse group.

Author(s): 
Homberg, Judith R.
Kyzar, Evan J.
Stewart, Adam Michael
Nguyen, Michael
Poudel, Manoj K.
Echevarria, David J.
Collier, Adam D.
Gaikwad, Siddharth
Klimenko, Viktor M.
Norton, William
Pittman, Julian
Nakamura, Shun
Koshiba, Mamiko
Yamanouchi, Hideo
Apryatin, Sergey A.
Scattoni, Maria Luisa
Diamond, David M.
Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.
Parker, Matthew O.
Brown, Richard E.
Song, Cai
Kalueff, Allan V.

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