INTRODUCTION: B-cell depletion has become a common treatment strategy in anti-TNF-refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the exact mechanism of how B-cell depletion leads to clinical amelioration in RA remains to be elucidated, repetitive treatment with B-cell-depleting agents leading to long-term B-cell depletion has been reported to be beneficial. The latter has led to the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of B-cell depletion might act through their influence on pathogenic autoreactive plasma cells.
B cells are critical players in the orchestration of properly regulated immune responses, normally providing protective immunity without autoimmunity. Balance in the B cell compartment is achieved through the finely regulated participation of multiple B cell populations with different antibody-dependent and independent functions. Both types of functions allow B cells to modulate other components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Autoantibody-independent B cell functions include antigen presentation, T cell activation and polarization, and dendritic cell modulation.
Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with more than 100 different autoantibodies, some of which may be associated with specific neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) manifestations. Injection of anti-P ribosomal antibodies (anti-P) directly to the brain ventricles of mice induces depression manifested by increased immobility time in the forced swim test (FST). METHODS: Mice were injected intracerebroventricularily (ICV) with affinity-purified human anti-P antibodies or normal commercial IgG as control.
Systemic lupus erythematosus commonly known as lupus is an intricate disorder with multiple organ involvement characterized primarily by inflammation caused due to deposition of immune-complexes formed by production of autoantibodies against nuclear, nucleolar as well as cytoplasmic self-antigens. Lack of availability of suitable treatments or treatments that are only symptomatic calls for investigation of possible modalities. Withania somnifera with its immunomodulatory properties is prescribed for arthritis in ayurveda.
The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FOs) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Because FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) has become available recently, we investigated their efficacy on survival and inflammatory kidney disease in a well-established animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus.
The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1β is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus.
A 57-year-old woman with Hashimoto's disease is described who developed transient destructive thyrotoxicosis subsequently after she underwent physical massage therapy over her shoulder to neck, together with the goiter, for muscle stiffness in that part. This case supports the concept that physical vigorous manipulation might be a contributing factor for thyrotoxicosis in cases predisposed with autoimmune thyroiditis.