Autonomic Nervous System

Publication Title: 
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically assess the effects of yoga on heart rate variability (HRV). Nine databases were searched from their inceptions to June 2014. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing yoga against any type of control intervention in healthy individuals or patients with any medical condition. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Two reviewers performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and quality assessments independent of one another. Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria.

Author(s): 
Posadzki, Paul
Kuzdzal, Adrian
Lee, Myeong Soo
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Scientific interest in acupuncture has led numerous investigators to conduct clinical trials to test the efficacy of acupuncture for various conditions, but the mechanisms underlying acupuncture are poorly understood. METHODS: The author conducted a PubMed search to obtain a fair sample of acupuncture clinical trials published in English in 2005. Each article was reviewed for a physiologic rationale, as well as study objectives and outcomes, experimental and control interventions, country of origin, funding sources and journal type.

Author(s): 
Moffet, Howard H.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Calorie restriction (CR) extends life span and retards age-related chronic diseases in a variety of species, including rats, mice, fish, flies, worms, and yeast. The mechanism or mechanisms through which this occurs are unclear. CR reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity, and alters neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous system function in animals. Whether prolonged CR increases life span (or improves biomarkers of aging) in humans is unknown. In experiments of nature, humans have been subjected to periods of nonvolitional partial starvation.

Author(s): 
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Caloric restriction (CR) retards aging in laboratory rodents. No information is available on the effects of long-term CR on physiologic markers of aging and longevity in humans. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker for cardiac autonomic functioning. The progressive decline in HRV with aging and the association of higher HRV with better health outcomes are well established. Heart rate variability assessment is a reliable tool by which the effects of CR on autonomic function can be assessed.

Author(s): 
Stein, Phyllis K.
Soare, Andreea
Meyer, Timothy E.
Cangemi, Roberto
Holloszy, John O.
Fontana, Luigi
Publication Title: 
Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: This article presents major concepts and research findings from the field of psychosomatic medicine that the authors believe should be taught to all medical students. METHOD: The authors asked senior scholars involved in psychosomatic medicine to summarize key findings in their respective fields.

Author(s): 
Novack, Dennis H.
Cameron, Oliver
Epel, Elissa
Ader, Robert
Waldstein, Shari R.
Levenstein, Susan
Antoni, Michael H.
Wainer, Alicia Rojas
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. METHODS: The study sample comprised 78 children, aged 5 to 6 years, from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biologic responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, as the telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio.

Author(s): 
Kroenke, Candyce H.
Epel, Elissa
Adler, Nancy
Bush, Nicole R.
Obradovic, Jelena
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise
Boyce, W. Thomas
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Anxiety disorders increase risk for the early development of several diseases of aging. Elevated inflammation, a common risk factor across diseases of aging, may play a key role in the relationship between anxiety and physical disease. However, the neurobiological mechanisms linking anxiety with elevated inflammation remain unclear. In this review, we present a neurobiological model of the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes inflammation.

Author(s): 
O'Donovan, Aoife
Slavich, George M.
Epel, Elissa S.
Neylan, Thomas C.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. METHODS: The study sample comprised 78 children, aged 5 to 6 years, from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biologic responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, as the telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio.

Author(s): 
Kroenke, Candyce H.
Epel, Elissa
Adler, Nancy
Bush, Nicole R.
Obradovic, Jelena
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise
Boyce, W. Thomas
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Psychology

This study explored the relationship among love deprivation, Performance greater than Verbal discrepancy, and violent crime in a sample of juvenile probationers. Love deprivation and P greater than V discrepancy was significantly related to violent delinquency after adjusting for the effects of both race and social class, two variables often closely associated with violent delinquency. Also, love deprivation was strongly related to P greater than V discrepancy.

Author(s): 
Walsh, A.
Beyer, J. A.
Petee, T. A.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

The evolution of the autonomic nervous system provides an organizing principle to interpret the adaptive significance of mammalian affective processes including courting, sexual arousal, copulation, and the establishment of enduring social bonds. According to the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995, 1996, 1997), the well-documented phylogenetic shift in the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system passes through three stages, each with an associated behavioral strategy.

Author(s): 
Porges, S. W.

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