Autophagy

Publication Title: 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics

Autophagy is a series of catabolic process mediating the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles through formation of a double-membrane vesicle, known as an autophagosome, and fusing with lysosome. Autophagy plays an important role of death-survival decisions in neuronal cells, which may influence to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Chebulagic acid, the major constituent of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, is a benzopyran tannin compound with various kinds of beneficial effects.

Author(s): 
Kim, Hee Ju
Kim, Joonki
Kang, Ki Sung
Lee, Keun Taik
Yang, Hyun Ok
Publication Title: 
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = BiomÈdecine & PharmacothÈrapie

Caloric restriction (CR) and a reduced growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis are associated with an extension of lifespan across taxa. Evidence is reviewed showing that CR and reduced insulin of GH-IGF-1 axis may exhibit their effects at least partly by their common stimulatory action on autophagy, the cell repair mechanism responsible for the housekeeping of cell membranes and organelles including the free radical generators peroxisomes and mitochondria.

Author(s): 
Bergamini, E.
Cavallini, G.
Donati, A.
Gori, Z.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Brain aging is associated with a progressive imbalance between antioxidant defenses and intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as exemplified by increases in products of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA oxidation. Oxidative conditions cause not only structural damage but also changes in the set points of redox-sensitive signaling processes including the insulin receptor signaling pathway. In the absence of insulin, the otherwise low insulin receptor signaling is strongly enhanced by oxidative conditions.

Author(s): 
Drˆge, Wulf
Schipper, Hyman M.
Publication Title: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites with a life cycle characterized by a period of starvation; many ticks spend more than 95% of their life off the host. Autophagy, which is the process of bulk cytoplasmic degradation in eukaryotic cells, is induced by starvation and is essential for extension of the lifespan. Therefore, we hypothesized that autophagy also occurs in ticks; however, there has been no report on autophagy-related (ATG) genes in ticks.

Author(s): 
Umemiya, Rika
Matsuo, Tomohide
Hatta, Takeshi
Sakakibara, Shin-ichi
Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren
Fujisaki, Kozo
Publication Title: 
Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

In 2000, it was suggested to me that "Autophagy will be the wave of the future; it will become the new apoptosis." Few people would have agreed at the time, but this statement turned out to be prophetic, and this process of 'self-eating' rapidly exploded as a research field, as scientists discovered connections to cancer, neurodegeneration and even lifespan extension. Amazingly, the molecular breakthroughs in autophagy have taken place during only the past decade.

Author(s): 
Klionsky, Daniel J.
Publication Title: 
Human Molecular Genetics

Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.

Author(s): 
MariÒo, Guillermo
Ugalde, Alejandro P.
Salvador-Montoliu, Natalia
Varela, Ignacio
QuirÛs, Pedro M.
CadiÒanos, Juan
van der Pluijm, Ingrid
Freije, JosÈ M. P.
LÛpez-OtÌn, Carlos
Publication Title: 
Cell Death and Differentiation

Ageing in divergent animal phyla is influenced by several evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways, mitochondrial activity and various environmental factors such as nutrient availability and temperature. Although ageing is a multifactorial process with many mechanisms contributing to the decline, the intracellular accumulation of damaged proteins and mitochondria is a feature common to all aged cells.

Author(s): 
Vellai, T.
Publication Title: 
BMB reports

Autophagy, which is a process of self eating, has gained interest in the past decade due to its both beneficial and controversial roles in various biological phenomena. The discovery of autophagy genes (ATG) in yeast has led to focused research designed to elucidate the mechanism and regulation of this process. The role of autophagy in a variety of biological phenomena, including human disease, is still the subject of debate. However, recent findings suggest that autophagy is a highly regulated process with both beneficial and negative effects.

Author(s): 
Dwivedi, Meenakshi
Ahnn, Joohong
Publication Title: 
Trends in Cell Biology

The accumulation of cellular damage is a feature common to all aging cells and leads to decreased ability of the organism to survive. The overall rate at which damage accumulates is influenced by conserved metabolic factors (longevity pathways and regulatory proteins) that control lifespan through adjusting mechanisms for maintenance and repair. Autophagy, the major catabolic process of eukaryotic cells that degrades and recycles damaged macromolecules and organelles, is implicated in aging and in the incidence of diverse age-related pathologies.

Author(s): 
Vellai, Tibor
Tak·cs-Vellai, Krisztina
Sass, MiklÛs
Klionsky, Daniel J.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Cell Biology

The mammalian ortholog of yeast Atg6/Vps30, Beclin 1, is an essential autophagy protein that has been linked to diverse biological processes, including immunity, development, tumor suppression, lifespan extension, and protection against certain cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases.

Author(s): 
He, Congcong
Levine, Beth

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