Eight patients with E. coli septicaemia had oliguric renal failure which was associated with haematological evidence of intravascular coagulation. Five of these patients also had the characteristic blood picture of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. In an attempt to prevent further deposition of fibrin, intravenous heparin was administered to six patients, three of whom recovered fully and three died. The diagnosis of intravascular coagulation was subsequently confirmed by histological examination of necropsy material and it is suggested that some of the complications of E.
It has been widely speculated that epigenetic changes may play a role in the etiology of psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable, but reversible, changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the genomic DNA sequence, brought about principally through alterations in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Although numerous studies have examined psychosis-associated gene expression changes in postmortem brain samples, epigenetic studies of psychosis are in their infancy.
BACKGROUND: Dynamic changes to the epigenome play a critical role in establishing and maintaining cellular phenotype during differentiation, but little is known about the normal methylomic differences that occur between functionally distinct areas of the brain. We characterized intra- and inter-individual methylomic variation across whole blood and multiple regions of the brain from multiple donors.
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
The patients with schizophrenia suffer from a lot of severe symptoms; positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiology remains almost unknown, and no curative therapy is available for the patients. Thus, the elucidation of the pathophysiology and development of curative therapy are imperative. Epigenetics is a promising approach in that it can explain the environmental effects as well as gene-environmental interaction.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor, which is important for neuronal survival, development and synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications of BDNF are associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. Patients with psychiatric disorders generally show decreased neural BDNF levels, which are often associated with increased DNA methylation at the specific BDNF promoters.
HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance.
To investigate epigenetic contributions to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, we carried out genome-wide mapping of the transcriptional mark, trimethyl-histone H3-lysine 4 (H3K4me3) in neuronal nuclei extracted from prefrontal cortex of HD cases and controls using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep-sequencing.
Given that many brain disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, there is a growing interest in investigating genetic and epigenetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One major caveat for such studies is the presence of nuclear-mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs), which are regions of the mitochondrial genome that have been inserted into the nuclear genome over evolution and, if not accounted for, can confound genetic studies of mtDNA. Here we provide the first systematic comparison of methods for isolating mtDNA from frozen post-mortem human brain tissue.
The brain is built from a large number of cell types which have been historically classified using location, morphology and molecular markers. Recent research suggests an important role of epigenetics in shaping and maintaining cell identity in the brain. To elucidate the role of DNA methylation in neuronal differentiation, we developed a new protocol for separation of nuclei from the two major populations of human prefrontal cortex neurons--GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic (GLU) projection neurons.