Avoidance Learning

Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND: Seven previous systematic reviews (SRs) have evaluated back schools, and one has evaluated brief education, with the latest SR including studies until November 2004. The effectiveness of fear-avoidance training has not been assessed. PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of back schools, brief education, and fear-avoidance training for chronic low back pain (CLBP). STUDY DESIGN: A SR. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database of randomized controlled trials (RCT) until August 2006 for relevant trials reported in English.

Author(s): 
Brox, J. I.
Storheim, K.
Grotle, M.
Tveito, T. H.
Indahl, A.
Eriksen, H. R.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

BACKGROUND: Information avoidance is a defensive strategy that undermines receipt of potentially beneficial but threatening health information and may especially occur when threat management resources are unavailable. PURPOSE: We examined whether individual differences in information avoidance predicted intentions to receive genetic sequencing results for preventable and unpreventable (i.e., more threatening) disease and, secondarily, whether threat management resources of self-affirmation or optimism mitigated any effects.

Author(s): 
Taber, Jennifer M.
Klein, William M. P.
Ferrer, Rebecca A.
Lewis, Katie L.
Harris, Peter R.
Shepperd, James A.
Biesecker, Leslie G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

The role of attachment style, self-esteem, and relationship attributions as possible mediators between abusive childhood experiences and difficulties in establishing supportive love relationships in adulthood were investigated in a sample of women known to be at risk of experiencing relationship problems. Measures of child abuse, the quality of love relationships, and the three potential mediators were made concurrently in adulthood.

Author(s): 
McCarthy, G.
Taylor, A.
Publication Title: 
Attachment & Human Development

Recent research indicating that roughly a third of the variation in female orgasmic frequency is heritable leaves a substantial amount of non-heritable variation to be explained. Given that emotion regulation is central to attachment theory and that attachment insecurity in infancy and avoidance in adulthood are not heritable, it was predicted that (higher levels of) avoidance would predict (lower levels of) female orgasmic frequency. Results of an Internet survey of 323 women (mean age = 24.39 years) proved consistent with this hypothesis.

Author(s): 
Cohen, Danielle L.
Belsky, Jay
Publication Title: 
Psychology and Psychotherapy

OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence that helping people develop compassion for themselves and others has powerful impacts on negative affect and promotes positive affect. However, clinical observations suggest that some individuals, particularly those high in self-criticism, can find self-compassion and receiving compassion difficult and can be fearful of it. This study therefore developed measures of fear of: compassion for others, compassion from others, and compassion for self.

Author(s): 
Gilbert, Paul
McEwan, Kirsten
Matos, Marcela
Rivis, Amanda
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Social Psychology

This study was designed to examine how the two dimensions of adult attachment styles, attachment anxiety and avoidance, would affect young adults' intentions of self-improvement in response to various regulatory strategies used by a close other (i.e., a romantic partner or best friend). One hundred and eighteen undergraduate students were involved in this study.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Hong
Publication Title: 
Attachment & Human Development

This investigation examined the importance of underlying motivations in predicting secure base support behavior, as well as the extent to which support motivations are predicted by individual differences in attachment orientation. Participants were 189 married couples who participated in two laboratory sessions. During a questionnaire session, couples completed assessments of their underlying motivations for providing, and for not providing, support for their partner's exploration (i.e., goal-strivings), as well as assessments of their typical secure base support behavior.

Author(s): 
Feeney, Brooke C.
Collins, Nancy L.
Van Vleet, Meredith
Tomlinson, Jennifer M.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Reports

This study examined the psychometric properties of a newly translated Italian version of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) Scale. The sample comprised 1,363 adults (906 women, 456 men, 1 unreported sex; ages 18-64 yr., M = 33.4, SD = 8.9; 84.4% reported being engaged in a romantic relationship, 9.4% declared being single), all living in Italy and speaking Italian as their first language. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed the expected bi-factorial (anxiety/avoidance) structure and a close correspondence between factors and scales.

Author(s): 
Busonera, Alessandra
Martini, Pietro San
Zavattini, Giulio Cesare
Santona, Alessandra
Publication Title: 
Attachment & Human Development

We present data on the preliminary validation of a measure of romantic attachment orientation from the California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ). The CAQ is found in several longitudinal data sets, and researchers can use the CAQ to answer questions about changes in romantic attachment across the lifespan. Expert raters nominated CAQ items that were characteristic of attachment anxiety and avoidance. In a sample of observers and targets, we compared ratings based on composites of these CAQ items to self- and observer-reports from a widely used scale of adult attachment.

Author(s): 
Chopik, William J.
Edelstein, Robin S.
Publication Title: 
Shinrigaku Kenkyu: The Japanese Journal of Psychology

The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health.

Author(s): 
Komura, Kentaro

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