Axons

Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: In clinical anesthesia, robust surgical stress occasionally causes unintended light anesthesia during operation. To test the hypothesis that neural input condition could modify actions of general anesthetics as a result of presynaptic alteration in the central nervous system, we investigated the mechanisms by which the stimulus frequency modifies synaptic transmission of the rat hippocampus in the presence of general anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Hirota, Koki
Sasaki, Rika
Roth, Sheldon H.
Yamazaki, Mitsuaki
Publication Title: 
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera) has been used for many purposes, it is mainly considered a tonic in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review focuses on the effects of compounds isolated from Ashwagandha on dementia models and on the spinal cord injury model. Our study demonstrated that the active constituents, withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI, restored presynapses and postsynapses, in addition to both axons and dendrites in cortical neurons after Abeta(25-35)-induced injury.

Author(s): 
Tohda, Chihiro
Publication Title: 
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera) has been used for many purposes, it is mainly considered a tonic in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review focuses on the effects of compounds isolated from Ashwagandha on dementia models and on the spinal cord injury model. Our study demonstrated that the active constituents, withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI, restored presynapses and postsynapses, in addition to both axons and dendrites in cortical neurons after Abeta(25-35)-induced injury.

Author(s): 
Tohda, Chihiro
Publication Title: 
Neurological Sciences: Official Journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology

Increasing evidences implicate impairment of axonal integrity in mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders. Beta-boswellic acid (BBA) is the major component of Boswellia serrata gum. This resin has long been used in Ayurveda (India's traditional medicine) to prevent amnesia. In this study, the effect of BBA was examined on neurites outgrowth and branching as well as on polymerization dynamics of tubulin. The morphometric parameters (axonal length and neuritis branching) were examined microscopically after treating the hippocampal cells with BBA.

Author(s): 
Karima, Oveis
Riazi, Gholamhossein
Yousefi, Reza
Movahedi, Ali Akbar Moosavi
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

A variety of seemingly diverse pain syndromes are characterized by movement-induced pain radiating in the distribution of a peripheral nerve or nerve root. This could be explained by the induction of ectopic mechanical sensitivity in intact sensory axons. Here we show that inflammation led to mechanical sensitivity of the axons of a subset of mechanically sensitive primary sensory neurons. Dorsal root recordings were made from 194 mechanically sensitive neurons that innervated deep and cutaneous structures and had C, Adelta, and Aalphabeta conduction velocities.

Author(s): 
Bove, Geoffrey M.
Ransil, Bernard J.
Lin, Hsi-Chiang
Leem, Jeong-Gill
Publication Title: 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

We studied the subcellular distribution of mitochondria and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in whole mounts of microdissected motor axons of rats expressing the ALS-linked SOD1-G93A mutation. The rationale was to determine whether physical interactions between the enzyme and mitochondria were linked to the axonopathy of motor fibers occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mitochondria and SOD1 displayed a homogeneous distribution along motor axons both in nontransgenic rats and in those overexpressing wild-type SOD1.

Author(s): 
Sotelo-Silveira, Jose R.
Lepanto, Paola
Elizondo, Victoria
Horjales, Sofia
Palacios, Florencia
Martínez-Palma, Laura
Marin, Monica
Beckman, Joseph S.
Barbeito, Luis
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Abnormal folding of tau protein leads to the generation of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological feature in Alzheimer disease and tauopathies. A specific anatomical pattern of pathological changes developing in the brain suggests that once tau pathology is initiated it propagates between neighboring neuronal cells, possibly spreading along the axonal network. We studied whether PHFs released from degenerating neurons could be taken up by surrounding cells and promote spreading of tau pathology.

Author(s): 
Santa-Maria, Ismael
Varghese, Merina
Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna
Dzhun, Anastasiya
Wang, Jun
Pasinetti, Giulio M.
Publication Title: 
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive methods are needed to detect distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), small-fiber sensitive measures, were assessed in subjects with and without clinical neuropathy. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Twenty-two subjects had symptoms and signs of neuropathy, 19 had neither, and all were receiving ART.

Author(s): 
Boger, M. S.
Hulgan, T.
Haas, D. W.
Mitchell, V.
Smith, A. G.
Singleton, J. R.
Peltier, A. C.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft

Insufficient recovery after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to (i) poor pathfinding of regrowing axons, (ii) excessive collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and (iii) polyneuronal innervation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The facial nerve transection model has been used initially to measure restoration of function after varying therapies and to examine the mechanisms underlying their effects. Since it is very difficult to control the navigation of several thousand axons, efforts concentrated on collateral branching and NMJ-polyinnervation.

Author(s): 
Skouras, Emmanouil
Ozsoy, Umut
Sarikcioglu, Levent
Angelov, Doychin N.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology

Using a combined morphofunctional approach, we recently found that polyinnervation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the critical factor for recovery of function after transection and suture of the facial nerve. Since polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, we tried to design a clinically feasible therapy by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. First, electrical stimulation was applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralyzed facial muscles.

Author(s): 
Angelov, Doychin N.

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