Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the methanolic leaf extract of T. chebula, followed by the aqueous fruit extract of T.
The antibacterial activity of acetone, hexane, dichloromethane leaf extract of five Terminalia species (Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wt. and Am., Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia catappa L. and Terminalia chebula Retz.) were tested by Agar-well-diffusion method against human pathogens E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The Rf values and relative activities of separated compounds were tested.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in multicellular organisms. Most animals produce NO from L-arginine via a family of dedicated enzymes known as NO synthases (NOSes). A rare exception is the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks its own NOS. However, in its natural environment, C. elegans feeds on Bacilli that possess functional NOS. Here, we demonstrate that bacterially derived NO enhances C. elegans longevity and stress resistance via a defined group of genes that function under the dual control of HSF-1 and DAF-16 transcription factors.
In comparison to other bacteria Bacillus subtilis emits the volatile compound isoprene in high concentrations. Isoprene is the smallest representative of the natural product group of terpenoids. A search in the genome of B. subtilis resulted in a set of genes with yet unknown function, but putatively involved in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway to isoprene. Further identification of these genes would give the possibility to engineer B. subtilis as a host cell for the production of terpenoids like the valuable plant-produced drugs artemisinin and paclitaxel.
The sigma(X) and sigma(W) extracytoplasmic function sigma factors regulate more than 40 genes in Bacillus subtilis. sigma(W) activates genes which function in detoxification and the production of antimicrobial compounds, while sigma(X) activates functions that modify the cell envelope. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify loci which negatively regulate sigma(W) or sigma(X) as judged by up-regulation from the autoregulatory promoter site P(W) or P(X). Fourteen insertions that activate P(W) were identified. The largest class of insertions are likely to affect transport.
The bioassay-guided fractionation of stems from Kielmeyera variabilis, traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine, yielded assiguxanthone-B (1), kielcorin (4), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), and a mixture of xanthones containing assiguxanthone-B (1) and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-prenylxanthone (2) (1:1 w/w). The xanthone mixture inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis at a concentration of 6.25 g/ml. When tested alone, the minimal inhibitory concentration of assiguxanthone-B was 25 g/ml against B. subtilis.
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders.