Bacterial Adhesion

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

AIM: Many weapons are available in the arsenal of a dental professional to combat dental caries, which is almost ubiquitously present. From a public health perspective, most of these weapons are far from being an ideal drug. Hence, there is a demand for better and effective antibacterial agents. This factor stimulated the process of the present study. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula on Streptococcus mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula were procured and powdered.

Author(s): 
Nayak, Sushma S.
Ankola, Anil V.
Metgud, Sharda C.
Bolmal, Uday Kumar
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Urology

PURPOSE: Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been identified as possible inhibitors of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. However, little is known about the dose range of this effect. Furthermore, it has not been studied directly in the urogenital system. To address these issues we tested the effect of a cranberry powder and proanthocyanidin extract on adherence of a P-fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli isolate to 2 new urogenital model systems, namely primary cultured bladder epithelial cells and vaginal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: E.

Author(s): 
Gupta, K.
Chou, M. Y.
Howell, A.
Wobbe, C.
Grady, R.
Stapleton, A. E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

A preparative analytical method was developed to selectively remove ("chemically subtract") a single compound from a complex mixture, such as a natural extract or fraction, in a single step. The proof of concept is demonstrated by the removal of pure benzoic acid (BA) from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice fractions that exhibit anti-adhesive effects versus uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Chemical subtraction of BA, representing a major constituent of the fractions, eliminates the potential in vitro interference of the bacteriostatic effect of BA on the E.

Author(s): 
Chen, Shao-Nong
Turner, Allison
Jaki, Birgit U.
Nikolic, Dejan
van Breemen, Richard B.
Friesen, J. Brent
Pauli, Guido F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

AIM OF STUDY: One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Author(s): 
Quave, Cassandra L.
Plano, Lisa R. W.
Pantuso, Traci
Bennett, Bradley C.
Publication Title: 
Caries Research

Cranberry crude extracts, in various vehicles, have shown inhibitory effects on the formation of oral biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, e.g. the inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S.

Author(s): 
Koo, H.
Duarte, S.
Murata, R. M.
Scott-Anne, K.
Gregoire, S.
Watson, G. E.
Singh, A. P.
Vorsa, N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medicinal Food

Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16 oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E.

Author(s): 
Tao, Yuanyuan
Pinzón-Arango, Paola A.
Howell, Amy B.
Camesano, Terri A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation.

Author(s): 
Saulnier, Delphine M.
Santos, Filipe
Roos, Stefan
Mistretta, Toni-Ann
Spinler, Jennifer K.
Molenaar, Douwe
Teusink, Bas
Versalovic, James
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of breast milk. Our laboratory has previously revealed gene clusters specifically linked to HMO metabolism in selected bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that growth of selected bifidobacteria on HMO stimulates the intestinal epithelium. METHODS: Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were incubated with lactose (LAC)- or HMO-grown Bifidobacterium longum subsp infantis (B infantis) or B bifidum.

Author(s): 
Chichlowski, Maciej
De Lartigue, Guillaume
German, J. Bruce
Raybould, Helen E.
Mills, David A.
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

Biofilm formation constitutes an alternative lifestyle in which microorganisms adopt a multicellular behavior that facilitates and/or prolongs survival in diverse environmental niches. Biofilms form on biotic and abiotic surfaces both in the environment and in the healthcare setting. In hospital wards, the formation of biofilms on vents and medical equipment enables pathogens to persist as reservoirs that can readily spread to patients. Inside the host, biofilms allow pathogens to subvert innate immune defenses and are thus associated with long-term persistence.

Author(s): 
Kostakioti, Maria
Hadjifrangiskou, Maria
Hultgren, Scott J.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Oral iron therapy can increase the abundance of bacterial pathogens, e.g., Salmonella spp., in the large intestine of African children. Carvacrol is a natural compound with antimicrobial activity against various intestinal bacterial pathogens, among which is the highly prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study aimed to explore a presumed interaction between carvacrol and bacterial iron handling and to assess the potential of carvacrol in preventing the increase of bacterial pathogenicity during high iron availability. S.

Author(s): 
Kortman, Guus A. M.
Roelofs, Rian W. H. M.
Swinkels, Dorine W.
de Jonge, Marien I.
Burt, Sara A.
Tjalsma, Harold
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