Bacterial Load

Publication Title: 
The Ceylon Medical Journal

INTRODUCTION: Different systems of traditional medicine of the Indian subcontinent, have used Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnata L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., individually or in combinations, to cure oral diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the oral hygiene and gingival health benefits of toothpaste formulated with a mixture of the above herbs (15% w/w).

Author(s): 
Jayashankar, S.
Panagoda, G. J.
Amaratunga, E. a. P. D.
Perera, K.
Rajapakse, P. S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry

OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease. Streptococcus mutans plays a major role in the occurrence of dental caries. Many antibacterial agents have been developed against dental caries. However, they lack the qualities of an ideal agent. Thus presently, antibacterial activity of herbal agents is being extensively studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula was prepared and mouthrinse was formulated.

Author(s): 
Nayak, S. S.
Ankola, A. V.
Metgud, S. C.
Bolmal, U.
Publication Title: 
The Ceylon Medical Journal

INTRODUCTION: Plant derived preparations have been essential components for maintenance of oral hygiene and the treatment of oral diseases globally since ancient times. Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnate L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Zingiber offici-nale Roscoe., individually or in combination, have been used for this purpose because of their beneficial effects.

Author(s): 
Howshigan, J.
Perera, K.
Samita, S.
Rajapakse, P. S.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research

BACKGROUND: Triphala is a botanical preparation consisting of equal parts of three herbal fruits. Much revered in Ayurveda, triphala has been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal actions. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 6% triphala in a mouthwash formulation on the salivary streptococci levels at the end of 48 h and 7 days, of twice a day usage, and to compare the same with 0.2% chlorhexidine.

Author(s): 
Srinagesh, Jyotsna
Krishnappa, Pushpanjali
Somanna, Shivaraj N.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research

BACKGROUND: Triphala is a botanical preparation consisting of equal parts of three herbal fruits. Much revered in Ayurveda, triphala has been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal actions. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 6% triphala in a mouthwash formulation on the salivary streptococci levels at the end of 48 h and 7 days, of twice a day usage, and to compare the same with 0.2% chlorhexidine.

Author(s): 
Srinagesh, Jyotsna
Krishnappa, Pushpanjali
Somanna, Shivaraj N.
Publication Title: 
PLoS pathogens

Bacterial infections following rhinovirus (RV), a common cold virus, are well documented, but pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed animal and cell culture models to examine the effects of RV on subsequent infection with non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi). We focused on NTHI-induced neutrophil chemoattractants expression that is essential for bacterial clearance. Mice infected with RV1B were superinfected with NTHi and lung bacterial density, chemokines and neutrophil counts determined.

Author(s): 
Unger, Benjamin L.
Faris, Andrea N.
Ganesan, Shyamala
Comstock, Adam T.
Hershenson, Marc B.
Sajjan, Umadevi S.
Publication Title: 
Planta Medica

Our previous studies indicate that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea depends on bacterial components. In the present study, total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4 × 10(6) to 3.3 × 10(8) bacteria/g of dry plant material.

Author(s): 
Pugh, Nirmal D.
Jackson, Colin R.
Pasco, David S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

OBJECTIVES: The stationary phase of Clostridium difficile, which is primarily responsible for diarrhoeal symptoms, is refractory to antibiotic killing. We investigated whether disrupting the functions of the clostridial membrane is an approach to control C. difficile infections by promptly removing growing and non-growing cells. METHODS: The bactericidal activities of various membrane-active agents were determined against C. difficile logarithmic-phase and stationary-phase cultures and compared with known antibiotics.

Author(s): 
Wu, Xiaoqian
Cherian, Philip T.
Lee, Richard E.
Hurdle, Julian G.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is recognized as an emerging cause of persistent diarrhea and enteric disease worldwide. Mucosal immunity towards EAEC infections is incompletely understood due in part to the lack of appropriate animal models. This study presents a new mouse model and investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in the modulation of host responses to EAEC in nourished and malnourished mice.

Author(s): 
Philipson, Casandra W.
Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
Viladomiu, Monica
Pedragosa, Mireia
Guerrant, Richard L.
Roche, James K.
Hontecillas, Raquel
Publication Title: 
Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets

Accumulating evidence suggests that Green tea polyphenolic catechins, especially the (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can be cross-linked to many proteins, and confer a wide range of anti-bacterial activities possibly by damaging microbial cytoplasmic lipids and proteins. At the doses that conferred protection against lethal polymicrobial infection (induced by cecal ligation and puncture), EGCG significantly reduced bacterial loads particularly in the liver and lung.

Author(s): 
Zhao, Lin
Li, Wei
Zhu, Shu
Tsai, Sheena
Li, Jianhua
Tracey, Kevin J.
Wang, Ping
Fan, Saijun
Sama, Andrew E.
Wang, Haichao

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