Basal Ganglia

Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Psychiatry

This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM) and its effects on anxiety, depression, and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception, and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung) and Taijiquan (Tai Chi), some forms of Yoga, and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan.

Author(s): 
Payne, Peter
Crane-Godreau, Mardi A.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Psychiatry

This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM) and its effects on anxiety, depression, and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception, and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung) and Taijiquan (Tai Chi), some forms of Yoga, and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan.

Author(s): 
Payne, Peter
Crane-Godreau, Mardi A.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

In a long-term longitudinal study of aging in rhesus monkeys, a primary objective has been to determine the effects of aging and caloric restriction (CR) on behavioral and neural parameters. Through the use of automated devices, locomotor activity can be monitored in the home cages of the monkeys. Studies completed thus far indicate a clear age-related decline in activity consistent with such observations in many other species, including humans. However, no consistent effects of CR on activity have been observed.

Author(s): 
Ingram, D. K.
Chefer, S.
Matochik, J.
Moscrip, T. D.
Weed, J.
Roth, G. S.
London, E. D.
Lane, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Research

In the cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC), DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of cytosine at carbon atoms in position 5 in CpG dinucleotides, is expressed selectively in GABAergic neurons and is upregulated in layers I and II of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder patients with psychosis (BDP).

Author(s): 
Veldic, Marin
Kadriu, Bashkim
Maloku, Ekrem
Agis-Balboa, Roberto C.
Guidotti, Alessandro
Davis, John M.
Costa, Erminio
Publication Title: 
Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society

Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the functional disruption of the copper-transporting protein adenosine triphosphatase 7B (ATP-ase 7B). The disease is caused by mutations in ATP7B gene. It seems that the type of mutation in ATP7B only to some degree determines phenotypic manifestation of WD. We examined two pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for WD phenotype. The first set of twins were ATP7B compound heterozygotes c.3207C>A (p.H1069Q)/c.1211_1212insA (p.N404Kfs).

Author(s): 
Cz?onkowska, Anna
Gromadzka, Grazyna
Chabik, Grzegorz
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder has a high co-occurrence with substance use disorders, but the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To review the role of stress in the onset and recurrence of affective episodes and substance misuse. METHOD: We review the mechanisms involved in sensitisation (increased responsivity) to recurrence of stressors, mood episodes and cocaine use.

Author(s): 
Post, Robert M.
Kalivas, Peter
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Social support may benefit mental and physical well-being, but most research has focused on the receipt, rather than the provision, of social support. We explored the potentially beneficial effects of support giving by examining the neural substrates of giving support to a loved one. We focused on a priori regions of interest in the ventral striatum and septal area (SA) because of their role in maternal caregiving behavior in animals.

Author(s): 
Inagaki, Tristen K.
Eisenberger, Naomi I.
Publication Title: 
Neurocase

Changes in socio-emotional behavior and conduct, which are characteristic symptoms of frontal lobe damage, have less often been described in patients with focal subcortical injuries. We report on a case of pathological generosity secondary to a left lenticulocapsular stroke with hypoperfusion of several anatomically intact cortical areas. A 49-year-old man developed excessive and persistent generosity as he recovered from a left lenticulocapsular hematoma. His symptoms resembled an impulse control disorder.

Author(s): 
Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael
Fontenelle, Leonardo F.
Moll, Jorge
de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

Civil societies function because people pay taxes and make charitable contributions to provide public goods. One possible motive for charitable contributions, called "pure altruism," is satisfied by increases in the public good no matter the source or intent. Another possible motive, "warm glow," is only fulfilled by an individual's own voluntary donations. Consistent with pure altruism, we find that even mandatory, tax-like transfers to a charity elicit neural activity in areas linked to reward processing.

Author(s): 
Harbaugh, William T.
Mayr, Ulrich
Burghart, Daniel R.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

The rates of local cerebral glucose utilization have been measured in normal conscious and hypnotized rabbits by the [14C]deoxyglucose method. In control rabbits the rates vary widely throughout the brain, with the values in gray matter broadly distributed around an average which is about 3 times greater than that of white matter. The higher values area in structures of auditory system (superior olive, inferior colliculus, auditory cortex).

Author(s): 
Passero, S.
Carli, G.
Battistini, N.

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