The mammalian ortholog of yeast Atg6/Vps30, Beclin 1, is an essential autophagy protein that has been linked to diverse biological processes, including immunity, development, tumor suppression, lifespan extension, and protection against certain cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases.
This report is designed to explore the molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and ionizing radiation (IR) induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. DHA treatment induced a concentration- and time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death with typical apoptotic characteristics such as breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), caspases activation, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization.
Keap1 is a BTB-Kelch substrate adaptor protein for a Cul3-dependent ubiquitin ligase complex that functions as a sensor for thiol-reactive chemopreventive compounds and oxidative stress. Inhibition of Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of the bZIP transcription factor Nrf2 enables Nrf2 to activate a cyto-protective transcriptional program that counters the damaging effects of oxidative stress. In this report we have identified a member of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, PGAM5, as a novel substrate for Keap1.
Estrogen is a powerful neuroprotective agent with the ability to induce trophic and antiapoptotic genes. However, concerns about negative overall health consequences of estrogen replacement after menopause have led to the adoption of other strategies to obtain estrogen's benefits in the brain, including the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators, high soy diets, or isoflavone supplements. This study sought to determine the ability of a high soy diet to induce neuroprotective gene expression in the female rat brain and compare the actions of soy with estrogen.
Soy phytoestrogens have been proposed as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy and have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in the brain. We have shown that a high soy diet significantly reduces infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we tested the hypothesis that a high soy diet would attenuate programmed cell death after stroke.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Rottlerin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Mallotus philipinensis. In the present study, we show that rottlerin decreased tumor size and stimulated apoptosis in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer with no effect on normal tissues in vivo. Rottlerin also induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cell lines by interacting with mitochondria and stimulating cytochrome c release. Immunoprecipitation results indicated that rottlerin disrupts complexes of prosurvival Bcl-xL with Bim and Puma.
Pancreatic cancer is an exceedingly lethal disease with a five-year survival that ranks among the lowest of gastrointestinal malignancies. Part of its lethality is attributable to a generally poor response to existing chemotherapeutic regimens. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We aimed to elucidate the anti-neoplastic mechanisms of apigenin-an abundant, naturally-occurring plant flavonoid-with a particular focus on p53 function. Pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2) experienced dose and time-dependent growth inhibition and increased apoptosis with apigenin treatment.
Rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (Linn.) or 'Kha' in Thai are used in food and as folk medicine in South and Southeast Asia. The aims of this study were to identify the mechanism of cell death of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cells induced by 4'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4'-HCA) isolated from A. galanga. 4'-HCA was cytotoxic to both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) as demonstrated by MTT assay.
Gambogic acid (GA) is the major active ingredient of gamboge secreted from a Chinese traditional medicine Garcinia hanburryi possessing potent anti-tumor activity. N-(2-ethoxyethyl)gambogamide (NG-18), a derivative of GA, also efficiently inhibits proliferation of cultured human tumor cells. The inhibition effect of NG-18 is associated with its ability to induce apoptosis. In the present study, NG-18 markedly induced leukemia HL-60 cells apoptosis, and the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were activated almost at the same time.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the different efficacy of Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. METHODS: To induce liver fibrosis, 0.5% DMN solution (2mL/kg body weight, i.p.) was given three consecutive days a week to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks. Cirrhotic rats were randomly divided into DMN group, YCHD group, Xiaochaihu decoction group by the end of the fourth week to accomplish a 2-week recipe treatment course.